We present to your attention another valuable and interesting work in which a graduate student of the Kharkov National Agrarian University. V. V. Dokuchaeva Nesmiyan A. V. Considers the problems of adaptive selection and the potential of amaranth specimens in the conditions of the Left-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine.
The material presents the results of practical research on the relationship of the elements of productivity, agronomic stability, homeostatism directly with the adaptive potential of amaranth plants.
As indicated, the main purpose of the study is a thorough study of the amaranth collection within the 4 most common plant species, both in productivity and in the adaptive potential of growing amaranth in the conditions of Left Bank Ukraine.U68mauAkSYE
The graduate student indicates that 32 samples of 4 plant species were studied. In particular, the study came under:
- Amaranthus caudatus;
- Amaranthus cruentus;
- Amaranthus hybridus;
- Amaranthus hypochondriacus.
As noted at the beginning of the work, the results can be used as a valuable theoretical and practical material for the selection of amaranth for performance and adaptability.
Problem statement research
At the present stage of development of agricultural production the main and most cost-effective method of increasing the yield of agricultural plants and improving product quality is the cultivation of high-yielding and high-quality varieties and hybrids.
As is known, from a practical point of view, those varieties and hybrids are very valuable, which in certain soil and climatic conditions can significantly exceed the best varieties and hybrids zoned in the respective territories for the most minimized costs of producing the necessary seeds.
Phenological studies of the rates of development and growth of amaranth plants provide specific information about the characteristics of groups of ripeness, the potential performance and adaptive properties of amaranth plants in certain soil and climatic conditions.
The climatic conditions of the left-bank part of the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine require the creation of varieties that are resistant to unforeseen conditions of spring-summer vegetation.
As P. N. Solyonechny noted, a very effective way to prevent losses from many negative environmental factors is precisely the creation and use in the production of new highly adaptable varieties that are capable of producing stable and high yields. Therefore, in the selection work, considerable attention should be paid to the evaluation of the adaptive properties and stability of the breeding material.
Amaranth – one of the highly adaptable species
Selection of highly adaptable varieties of universal use with a high genetic potential of yield, with a positive response to the best growing technologies and capable simultaneously in severe adverse conditions to maintain a high yield threshold, is an extremely urgent problem of our time and requires careful analysis.
Amaranth refers to those plants in which breeding work has begun recently. Therefore, in order to determine the source material that would be suitable for use in creating varieties of amaranth grain direction, adapted to the conditions of the Left Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine, a detailed study of collection specimens on the grounds that caused a high level of productivity of this crop is necessary.
For many years, a collection of amaranth samples of various uses has been presented in KNAU named after V. V. Dokuchaev, presented from many countries of the world. Studies were conducted during 2012-2014.
Search for the best variety sample
The objective of the research was to study the influence of agro-ecological growing conditions on the adaptive potential of the plant grain amaranth and their performance indicators.
Experiments were performed during 2012-2014. on the experimental field KNAU them. V.V. Dokuchaev. 32 collection samples were analyzed.
As is known from the experience of breeding other crops, a sample with an overall maximum adaptive capacity and high stable yield can be the best sample for both widespread production and for selection as a whole.
Many modern varietal samples have high yields under production conditions only if they comply with technological recommendations and favorable environmental conditions; therefore, they cannot guarantee high constant performance under extreme conditions.
What research results were obtained
To determine the adaptive potential of amaranth samples, the following features were investigated:
- panicle length;
- panicle productivity;
- mass of 1000 seeds;
- seed yield.
Over the years of research, there was a significant differentiation between samples based on performance characteristics.
It is known that the amaranth plant is a dual-nucleus pseudo-grass with the C-4 type of photosynthesis, which, in turn, unlike the true cereals of the C-3 type, allows amaranth to accumulate much greater biomass and give a greater yield of grain, which in turn increases the yield index .
Although amaranth seeds differ from other crops in small sizes (1.0-1.5 mm), their number in panicles is very large (in wild forms – from 200,000 pieces per brush, in cultural forms – from 500,000 pieces) therefore, one medium brush in its mass can reach 1 kg (such data are carried out in the work “Protein-lipid-starch complexes of amaranth seeds”, the authors of which are A. N. Makeev, H. A. Juvelikyan, L. A. Miroshnichenko. The work was published in the Bulletin of the Voronezh State University, Voronezh State University, in 2001.).
The “amino acid” name indicates the protein purposefulness of amaranth’s carbon metabolism. Although there is no causal directional link, it is known that an increase in the frequency of asparate among C4 acids is associated with a significant increase in photodial metabolism and an increase in protein synthesis.
It is this combination of highly efficient photosynthesis with quite significant systems that mainly synthesize protein, which makes amaranth a rather promising culture.
Analysis of the yield of amaranth seeds showed that it is largely associated with the length of the panicle, the productivity of one plant (Table 1).
As a result of the research, it was found that samples with higher rates of these signs had a higher yield per square mark of the sown area, while samples with low rates, on the contrary, were less productive.
The seed yield per unit area varied in the range from 50.7 g (BP-721 of the species A. сruentus) to 280.6 g (view A. сaudatus, К-219). For an average of three years of research, the sign of the mass of 1000 seeds varied from 470 mg (sample BP-645 of the species A. hybridus) to 740 mg (sample K-266 of the species A. сaudatus). The researcher found that the mass index of 1000 seeds remained almost unchanged within one species.
The productivity of a single plant is one of the important indicators for obtaining a general characteristic of a sample. During the three years of study, the productivity of one plant ranged from 3.5 g (sample K-257 of the species A. сruentus) and up to 11.3 g (sample K-219 of the species A. сaudatus).
Important in the range of adaptability of amaranth plants is given to heat resistance. Upon receipt of seed material in hotter and arid agro-climatic conditions, a significantly higher index of heat resistance is observed (up to 95%) than in seeds obtained when grown in favorable conditions.
Poslyaeva A.A. notes that stress factors of the environment at the moments of critical periods in a certain way affect the final realization of the genetic potential of heat resistance of the studied varieties.
This may indicate that growth processes in more heat resistant specimens are not always intense alongside less heat resistant specimens. Moreover, in samples with lower heat resistance after significant treatment of seeds with high temperatures, seedlings were isolated, which in their length and weight exceeded by 1.5-2.5 times the control samples studied in the course of research. This allows for selection of individual plants with pronounced heat resistance in all groups of plant resistance.
It should be noted that over the years of research, despite the unfavorable weather conditions in most samples of amaranth, significant suppression was not observed under the influence of drought, which may indicate a high potential of this plant and its resistance to dry conditions.
In the experiments, the plants did not receive additional agrotechnical measures, such as:
- seed treatment;
- artificial irrigation;
- additional fertilization, herbicides and insecticides.
Such an approach to research allowed analyzing samples under conditions of the zone as close as possible to the soil-climatic conditions and more thoroughly analyzing the indicator of their adaptive potential. The results of the evaluation of the adaptive potential of amaranth samples for seed yield are presented in Table 2.
An assessment of the specific significance of amaranth samples, which is determined as Ei genetic potential and Ri-stability of its implementation, allows us to determine the value of each of them and to give a comprehensive assessment of the presented samples on the level of seed yield.
Based on the analysis of ranks of practical value, as ranks for Ei and Ri, according to the results of evaluation of amaranth samples, samples with high and low adaptive potential were identified (Table 3).
As is known, the collection sample, which has the smallest sum of ranks, will have the greatest practical value in comparison with other collection samples.
In these studies over 3 years, the samples with the smallest sum of ranks equal to 3 had the greatest practical value:
Also, the average practical value and the sum of the ranks 4 were in the samples:
Other collectible samples with a greater sum of ranks are less effective in terms of practical value, so they were not considered.
A certain homeostatism and agronomic stability of amaranth samples also confirmed the difference between samples in terms of adaptive potential.
Homeostaticity (Hom) mainly characterizes the breeding value of a genotype of a variety, that is, the higher this indicator is, the higher the grade of a variety is in terms of its suitability for engaging in breeding work.
The agronomic stability coefficient (As) characterizes the economic value of the variety; accordingly, the most valuable for production are varieties whose stability coefficient is more than 70%.
Samples had a high level of homeostasis:
- BP-779 (Hom = 18.49);
- K-219 (Hom = 13.02);
- BP-644 (Hom = 11.52).
According to the agronomic stability coefficient, the following amaranth samples were identified:
- K-266 (As = 82.39);
- K-219 (As = 73.62);
- K-248 (As = 86.91);
- BP-663 (As = 89.08);
- BP-644 (As = 89.39);
and other samples in which the stability coefficient exceeded 70%.
According to these indicators, the best samples include K-219 and BP-644 samples, which had a high level of homeostatism, and at the same time a high level of agronomic stability.
At the same time, the K-219 sample had the lowest rank in terms of genetic potential and was average in terms of the stability of its implementation, and, like BP-644, on the contrary stood out for the stability of the realization of genetic potential with an average indicator of genetic potential.
To summarize: research findings
Thus, as a result of the three-year research, it was found that most amaranth collection samples have high adaptive potential; K-219, BP-644 samples have been identified, which, due to their performance and high adaptability, deserve further use in the selection process.