We bring to your attention the material about amaranth, the authors of which are D. Rakhmetov (head of the department of new cultures of the National Botanical Garden named after N. Grishko of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Dr. of Agricultural Sciences) and J. Rybalko (senior scientist of the examination department plant varieties for suitability for distribution of the Ukrainian Institute of Plant Variety Expertise). It tells about all the features of amaranth. Given the level of experts who worked on the preparation of the article, it is safe to say that amaranth is a really nourishing and useful plant that can be used in various fields.
Introduction: general information about amaranth
Amaranth (schiritsa) is a high-yielding annual crop with a wide range of uses. Farm animals eat their green mass well, both fresh and ensiled.
Grain can be used as feed for poultry, and processed products are used:
- in a candy store;
- in the pharmaceutical;
- and in the perfume industry.
Due to the unsurpassed appearance of the plant, a large number of species and hybrids are used as flower-decorative forms.
The most promising species of the amaranth family for culture introduction are:
- paniculate amaranth – A. paniculatus L .;
- caudate – A.caudatus L .;
- and bilosemenny – A. leucospermus S. Wats.
The tropical part of both Americas (Mexico, Argentina, Venezuela, Peru) is considered the birthplace of most species of this family. In Ukraine, there are 12 types of schizrytsi, including those imported from the Western hemisphere and local ones.
Unlike most agricultural crops, amaranth does not have the so-called midday depression of photosynthesis, when plants spend 3-4 hours without synthesizing organic substances, actively spending them on breathing.
The high photosynthetic activity of amaranth contributes to its architectonics: the location of the leaves on the stem makes it possible to rationally use PAR, the optimum value of which is close to 5 billion kcal / ha.
HEADLIGHT – physiologically active radiation: solar energy, which green plants absorb and use in the process of photosynthesis. This is part of solar radiation reaching biocenoses in the range from 400 to 700 nm, used by plants for photosynthesis.
For the growth and development of amaranth, the optimum temperature is 35 ° C, but the plant withstands well the differences in day and night temperatures.
In terms of drought tolerance, amaranth belongs to the group of C4 plants – of subtropical and tropical origin. High biological productivity and low transpiration coefficient are associated with highly efficient C4 photosynthesis. The need for amaranth in moisture per unit of synthesized organic matter is 2.0-2.5 times less than in legumes and cereals.
One of the important biological features of amaranth is ecological plasticity and adaptability, which is manifested in its adaptability to various soil and climatic conditions.
Amaranth is well cultivated on various types of soil, except acid. But a high yield of above-ground mass can be obtained on leached chernozem: by 20-30% more than on ordinary chernozem, and by 40-50% – than on gray forest soils with heavy mechanical composition.
Nutritional value of amaranth
From the leaves of young plants prepare a salad that is valuable from a food point of view. Amaranth seeds taste like a nut. The content of protein, amino acids, vitamins, macro-and micronutrients, biologically active substances, seed oils are superior to the main traditional food crops.
According to the international scale of protein quality, amaranth seed protein has the highest biological value – it has 75 points, wheat has 56.9, soy beans has 68 and cow’s milk has 72.2 points.
According to the content of seeds in the protein (15-18%), amaranth exceeds wheat (12-14%), rice (7-10%), corn (9-10%) and other cereals. In addition, the amino acid composition in these cereals is unbalanced, they have little lysine.
In the lipoprotein complex of amaranth, the amount of lysine is 11.7 g per 100 g of protein, which is significantly more than in wheat (2.0 g), rice (3.5 g), pea (3.8 g) and soy flour (5 0 g), in the kernel of sunflower (3.1 g) and in cow’s milk (7.8 g).
Amaranth seeds have a very high starch content. It is concentrated in the central part of the seed. Its granules are extremely small (1-2 microns) and may contain wax or nevoskovy starch. By properties, amaranth starch is close to corn starch.
The amaranth is processed in various ways depending on the purpose of obtaining the final products. Seeds are used whole or as flour. Germ and bran can be separated from the nucleus with disk equipment.
During bran grinding, the protein-rich fraction and butter can be separated from the starch-rich fraction. Conversely, the oil can be extracted from coarsely ground seeds, and skimmed flour is used as a source of protein and starch.
Amaranth seeds are characterized by high ash content and mineral content. Especially a lot of them:
Studies have shown that phosphorus is found predominantly in the embryo, and calcium, magnesium, and other substances in the seed coat. In addition to these elements, the seed germ is rich in riboflavin (vitamin B).
So, amaranth seeds have a high energy and nutritional value, so it can be used to obtain oil or food.
Great pet food
Amaranth plants do not lose their forage value from the stepping phase to flowering: the period of their feeding can be prolonged by sowing in 2-3 terms with an interval of 10-15 days.
It was established that the chemical composition of green mass of amaranth varies significantly in the vegetation phases. From stealing to fruiting, the content of crude protein in dry matter decreases from 18.5 to 12.3%, and organic matter and fiber increases from 76 to 82% and from 27 to 35%, respectively.
From the ejection phase of the panicle to the formation of seeds, amaranth feeding rate decreases slightly: in 88-98%. Nutrient digestibility coefficient of amaranth green mass acquires the highest values in the ejection phase of the panicle.
The digestibility of dry matter of feed by sheep during this period reaches 68%, organic matter – 67%, protein – 74%, crude fat – 59%, crude fiber – 61%.
Amaranth green mass has a high energy. With one kilogram of gross energy output – 2.3-2.5 MJ and exchange – 1.1-1.3 MJ.
Compared with corn and Sudanese grass, the green mass of amaranth is positive in its content of protein and fiber. In absolutely dry green mass of amaranth protein – 20.6%, whereas in corn – 11.9%, and in Sudanese grass – 13.8%. Fiber is less in amaranth – 13.2%, in maize and Sudan grass – 25.2% and 27.8%, respectively.
Protein value of amaranth-corn mixtures is the highest in the phase of milk maturity of cultures: 1 K.A. This mixture accounts for 94 g of digestible protein, corn-soybean – 82 g.
Amaranth silo has a valuable chemical composition. It contains 23.6% of dry matter, 3.5 – protein, 9.6 – MAP, 0.9 – fat, 5.5 – fiber and 4.2% – ash. The content of feed units per 100 kg of silage reaches 16.2.
From the green mass of amaranth, despite the high protein content and low carbohydrate content, provided that you meet the requirements of the process, you can prepare high quality silage. Nutritionally, it is not inferior to corn and exceeds sunflower. Pig farm
The best time to collect green mass for silage is the period from flowering to milky-wax ripeness of seeds. This silo is moderately sour.
Despite the fact that 1 kg of dry matter of silage made during the flowering phase contains 0.92 KA. and 10.65 MJ OE, it is undesirable to silage during this growing season, because the feed will be high in content (75-80%) of acetic acid. Animals eat them badly, and the loss of dry matter from fermentation is 40-50% higher than those that occur after ensiling in the flowering phase.
The quality of the ground mass
The quality of the ground mass is one of the most important factors influencing the ensiling process. It is directly dependent on the moisture content of the mass: the higher the humidity and the degree of grinding, the greater the loss of dry matter, and vice versa. The green mass of amaranth with a humidity of 75-80% should be crushed into slices 50 mm long, 71-75% – 40 mm, 70% and more – 30 mm.
During the preparation of amaranth silage, you can add 20% of well chopped straw of spring grain crops or about 50% of green mass of corn.
An important condition for high-quality ensiling and preservation of nutrients is the compaction of silage weight by tracked tractors. The density of the tamper, as well as the degree of grinding, is determined by the moisture of the raw material: 70% and lower should be 650-750 kg / m3, more than 70% – 700-800 kg / m3.
Indicator of the degree of compaction of silage mass is the temperature, which should not exceed 37 ° C. Heating the mass to a high temperature leads to a significant increase in nutrient loss and a sharp decrease in the content of digestible protein. Therefore, if the temperature rises, the silage mass should be compacted and air must not be allowed to enter it.
It is better to cover the silage mass with a polymer film with a thickness of 0.12-0.15 mm. At the same time, they monitor the uniform formation of the surface of the mass, so that the atmospheric precipitation does not linger in the recesses, but flows into the drainage grooves. In the absence of film silage can be covered with a layer of earth or clay (15-20 cm).
Amaranth breeding has a number of features associated primarily with the biology and genetics of culture. Amaranth flowers are same-sex, gathered into balls, which together form characteristic flowering panicles. Each ball has a different number of male and female flowers.
The pollination system is mixed with different levels of self- and cross-pollination, which gives breeders the opportunity to use a combination of breeding methods developed for both self-pollinating and cross-pollinating plants. The degree of cross-pollination is influenced by both the genotype and the environment.
A promising direction for amaranth selection is the use of heterosis based on inchuch-lines. For isolation of individual plants use parchment insulators.
Also important is the use in the selection of the latest biotechnological methods that combine genetic engineering with the methods of tissue culture. Some foreign research centers are already developing methods for the genetic transformation of amaranth.
Ukrainian research institutions have also created a number of highly productive varieties of amaranth. The main centers for his breeding and seed production are:
- National Botanical Gardens them. N. N. Grishko, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (5 varieties);
- Institute of Feed UAAS, Vinnitsa (6 varieties);
- Kharkiv State Agrarian University. V.V. Dokuchaeva, Kharkiv (6 varieties);
- Institute of Agriculture and Livestock of the Western Region of the Ukrainian Academy of Agrarian Sciences, Lviv Region (2 varieties);
- Institute of Agriculture of Polesia UAAN, Zhytomyr (1st grade);
- Sumy State Agricultural Experimental Station (Grade 1).
According to the data of 2003, 20 varieties of amaranth, which are recommended for cultivation in various agro-climatic zones, were entered into the State Register of Plant Varieties.
The main directions of use of varieties of this culture created in Ukraine are as follows:
- grain – Aztec, Galitsky, Lark, Kotigoroshek, Well done, Orchid, Polishchuk, Ultra, Lera, Sam;
- silage – Atlant, Carmine, Cream Early, Skiff, Sterkh, Sadovsky;
- Flower-decorative – Nadezhda, Rogansky, Fireball, Rushnichok.
Special mention deserves the technology of growing amaranth. D. Rakhmetov and J. Rybalko also describe it in detail. But we’ll talk about this in the next article.