In addition to the cultural and ornamental species of amaranth (the first are used in food by people, and the second – bright flowers, the decoration of Amaranth Amaranthus retroflexus Lsada) there are also wild varieties that can harm farmers. These include amaranth or Amaranthus retroflexus L. Released. Today we want to tell you more about it. Representing on your court the opinion of British scientists. And although in recent years the phrase “British scientists” has become a meme, which originated as a result of the unfair use of trafficking by journalists, in fact in the UK there are really qualified specialists working.
Why did we decide to talk about the wild variety that is a weed? It’s simple! We are sometimes accused of allegedly propagating a plant that in our country has long been equated with weeds and used in feeding domestic animals. Although people just do not understand that there are different varieties.
By the way! Amaranthus retroflexus L upturned in our country is called Schiz.
The story of amaranth thrown back will allow our readers to understand what kind of plant is a weed. This information will help to understand the varieties and not to confuse among themselves wild and cultural species.
Also, the information will be useful to farmers and gardeners who are forced to constantly deal with weeds.
Researches of the British scientists: what they tell about the amaranth thrown back
Amaranth was analyzed by the British researchers W. Bond, G. Davies, R. Turner in Coventry, Organic Gardens of Rhyton. These studies have been for several years now, but this does not make them less interesting.
Amaranth tilted up is a perennial weed growing on cultivated land and in various types of waste collection sites. He is believed to come from North America, but today he is spreading all over the world.
Amaranth thrown back (or ordinary amaranth) came to the UK in different ways, including migratory birds could carry it. Most often it occurs in the warmer arid regions of Britain, for example, in East Anglia. He prefers loose soils rich in nitrogen.
Note! Perhaps it is the love of nitrogen that explains the fact that the schirits or amaranth, thrown back, loves to grow not only in vegetable gardens, but also around farms, in places where manure is stored. By the way, Ukrainian gardeners have noticed such a tendency – after fertilization of the earth with manure, there is an active growth of shchiritsa.
Mature plants of amaranth thrown back are used as animal feed, but young plants eaten in large quantities can be poisonous to livestock.
Green leaves contain oxalates and high levels of nitrates. Sheep, pigs and cattle, especially young calves, may suffer from excessive consumption of this plant.
However, in many parts of the world, it is used as a green vegetable, and the seeds are ground to make flour.
The plant as a whole and the remains of amaranth can have an allelopathic effect on the germination and growth of other plants — that is, it can secrete certain chemical compounds that hinder the development and spread of other plants. It accumulates high levels of cesium 137 and strontium 90 and can be used for bioremediation of polluted soil.
The blooming of amaranth, which is thrown back, is rather long – from July to September, depending on the climatic characteristics of the region.
Flowers are mostly pollinated by the wind, but some insect pollination can occur. Seeds ripen from August to October (again, depending on the climatic characteristics of the region).
The minimum time for seed development is 30 days from the beginning of the flowering period. The average number of seeds per plant is 117,400 units, but there can be more than 229,000 seeds per large plant. Nearly located plants have fewer seeds. The mass of 1000 seeds ranges from 0.340 to 0.439 g. Seeds on plants that ripen earlier in the season are heavier than seeds on plants that ripen later. Seeds can remain even in overripe buds, that is, not to get enough sleep on their own.
Fresh seeds from different populations of ordinary amaranth may differ in their germination characteristics, but the differences are reduced during dry storage.
In laboratory studies, the minimum germination temperature was 10 ° C. Maximum germination occurred at 35-40 ° C. A temperature of 40 ° C led to the germination of ripe seeds soon after harvest. The optimum germination temperature becomes lower as the seeds mature.
In field conditions, ordinary amaranth seeds do not germinate until the temperature starts to grow in late spring or early summer. The main period of occurrence of seedlings occurs from May to August, but some seedlings may appear in April.
Seedlings appear best at a depth of 5 to 30 mm. Below 40 mm seed germination is much smaller. Germinates better in clay than in sandy soil.
Normal amaranth is a C4 plant in terms of carbon fixation during photosynthesis. It grows better at higher temperatures and light levels. Seedlings are sensitive to frost.
Other information about amaranth thrown back
Also, British scientists studied the degree of germination of amaranth when it was sown in the field – for example, where winter wheat or spring barley grows. In particular, 5-year observations were made. It was found that there is a decrease in the level of yield of grain crops.
In addition, the sprouting rate of schiritsa was only 8% of the total seed fund.
Seeds buried in soil with a depth of 20, 56, and 107 cm gave germination of 11, 36, and 48%, respectively, 10 years later, but not a single seed germinated after 16 years.
In some “burial” experiments, seeds could germinate in 40 years, in others, viability was lost after only 5 years.
By the way! After 30 months of dry storage at low temperatures, the seeds remained fully viable.
Under normal conditions, the spread and sowing of seeds of amaranth thrown back is carried out by:
- agricultural machinery;
Amaranth tilted is one of the components of wild bird food sold in UK stores. Its seeds in nature are carried by birds and animals. Also, as a result of research, it was found that amaranth seeds are present in the water used to irrigate fields.
Note! Seed stored in water for 33 months gave 9% germination during testing.
Some amaranth seeds still retained their viability after 2 weeks of composting the rolls at a temperature of 50 to 65 ° C, but after 4 weeks they all died.
There is evidence that the seeds survive even when digested in the body of cows, sheep and horses. Apparently viable seeds were found in samples of cow dung.
By the way! Probably, this is another reason why shchiritsa actively grows in places of manure storage.
In dry soil, heating the seeds to 60 or 70 ° C for 7 days had little effect on the viability of the seeds. In wet soil at the same temperature, viability gradually decreased over 7 days to about 5%. At 50 ° C, viability was reduced to 44%, but at 40 ° C there was practically no decrease in viability.
How to deal with amaranth thrown back mamarant thrown back, schiritsa
The best way to avoid the spread of schiritsa is to re-cultivate the soil, as well as prevent seed sowing. A small number of young seedlings in the garden and personal garden is destroyed with the help of weeding, rotary processing.
Normal amaranth seed is susceptible to soil solarization, but seedlings are relatively resistant to ultraviolet radiation.
Thick mulch covering the soil reduces seed germination in the field. It was found during greenhouse tests in the US that corn gluten (CGM) (a by-product of corn, can also be used as a natural herbicide), used as a surface treatment, and used in tillage, reduces the overall development of amaranth to 99% with intensity applying 324, 649 and 973 g per square meter of cultivated area.
As you can see, the shchiritsa, a weed familiar to our latitudes, has some external similarity with cultural amaranth. However, it carries a great threat to any grain, cultivated plants.
Amaranth thrown back is able to cover large areas of the soil with almost a continuous carpet, to oppress the slowly developing shoots of cultivated amaranth and other plants.
Interestingly, the young shoots of schiritsa are quite similar to the shoots of cultural amaranth, which leads to certain difficulties in weeding and thinning crops.
However, there are still differences – the seedlings of cultivated amaranth have a brighter, red color, and therefore it is still possible to fight the weed!
Although it should be noted that shchiritsa ordinary at close proximity to cultivated plants, pereopylyaetsya amaranth, which causes significant damage to the yield and purity of the variety.
From all of the above, we make a simple conclusion – although the amaranth of the upturned and cultivated varieties of this plant represent one family, they have some similar indicators, but still differ in their properties and characteristics. And in the crops of cultivated varieties, schiritsa is a clear competitor, hindering the development of plants, lowering the yield.