AMARANTH IN FEED: SUCCESSFUL EXPERIENCES AND FAVORABLE PERSPECTIVES

Автор - | 08.03.2019

Amaranth in agriculture is becoming increasingly popular for more than two decades. The introduction of it into the feed is slow, the livestock breeders try to be careful, because the unsuccessful experience of using amaranth in agriculture a few decades ago for a long time turned away from this plant and feed manufacturers, and livestock farms. Nevertheless, amaranth’s “reputation” is being restored, and now many farmers and farmers recognize that amaranth forage varieties are more profitable than wheat, soybean, barley, and other traditional crops.

Amaranth in domestic animal husbandry: the fall and rise
Amaranth was used as a forage crop on the territory of the present CIS countries at least two centuries ago. By the end of the 19th century, it was actively cultivated in a number of regions up to the Urals, it was popular on quinoa-fields in northern Kazakhstan, and there is even evidence that some of its varieties were used as animal feed in the eastern part of Siberia. However, in the central part of Russia, in Ukraine and in Belarus, they practically knew nothing about him, therefore, during Soviet times, preference was generally given to traditional cultures and for several decades they forgot about amaranth.

In the 70s-80s of the last century, interest in amaranth increased again sharply against the backdrop of “rumors coming from the West” about its benefits and profitability, and in several regions it was decided to grow and introduce amaranth grain and green matter again into animal feed. But because of the insufficient study of the plant, the results were deplorable: the quantity and quality of agricultural products decreased markedly, and the mortality of animals fed with amaranth grain increased. This forced the farmers and farmers to stop the widespread experiments with amaranth and return to the usual feed. Amaranth was excluded from agricultural production as a harmful and dangerous plant.

In the 90s, after the collapse of the USSR, many agricultural producers with large livestock numbers, under the threat of bankruptcy, began to look for alternative farming methods. Among other things, they turned to the experience of European and American colleagues and were surprised to learn that the infamous Union amaranth has long been successfully used in the West, valued for its high yield and benefits, and is considered one of the most economical high-protein crops in the diet of livestock and poultry.

Some farmers decided to take a chance: they resumed the cultivation of amaranth and began experimenting with different varieties, met with colleagues from the West, adopted their experience and introduced it with us. Many of the agricultural producers who were looking for alternative ways of economic development in the 90s, we are obliged to those studies of various varieties of amaranth, which is at the moment. But there were very few such daredevils – most of the cattle breeders preferred not to get involved in a plant that showed itself in such an unfavorable way.

However, the activities of those who decided to take the risk bore fruit: gradually it turned out that amaranth is considered a weed and mercilessly weed out unfairly, at least some of its varieties. It turned out that due to poor awareness of the properties of amaranth, Soviet farms in different regions tried to grow and feed the livestock and poultry varieties, some of which are really not suitable as feed. Moreover, due to the same poor awareness and confusion with the plants, dsc02514 called “amaranth” and “schiritsa” (confusion that has persisted until now), instead of amaranth some schiritsa were grown in some places. It is not surprising that the mortality of animals has increased dramatically: the shchiritsa contains alkaloids and saponins, in large quantities for animals extremely harmful.

Around the end of the 90s – the beginning of the 2000s, domestic agricultural production had enough information about amaranth to start using it in industrial livestock production without serious consequences. The prejudice left against the amaranth, preserved from the times of the USSR, remains an obstacle: it is this which keeps farmers from buying mixed fodder with amaranth to this day. But the increase in the number of such feeds and their increasing popularity suggests that in the future amaranth will be used on a par with traditional crops, and maybe even more active, since in economic terms it is really not much better than the same wheat as in economic indicators, but compared to biological ones. her.

Biological value of amaranth for animal and poultry farming
Amaranth in livestock and poultry farming is a profitable feed with high indicators of productivity, with proper cultivation, it is environmentally friendly (since it does not require the use of a number of chemicals necessary for growing, for example, barley). Grain of amaranth fodder varieties contains about 14-18% protein, 5-6% healthy fats, 55-62% starch, pectins, 5 micro and macro elements each.

Amaranth protein – the main value for livestock and poultry
In comparison with other traditional cultures, amaranth wins precisely in protein indicators. Thus, amaranth protein is twice as high as wheat protein in lysine content. More than half of amaranth proteins are albumin and globulins with a balanced amino acid composition. Amaranth contains 18 basic amino acids out of 20 (both essential and non-essential), which is not observed in any traditional fodder culture. The basis of fat is unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, linolenic). Amaranth starch is characterized by increased swelling, viscosity and gelatinization.

According to the National Research Council of the United States, published in the book “Amaranth: Modern Possibilities of Ancient Culture” (“Amaranth: Modern Prospects for an Ancient Crop”), amaranth grains contain 16% more protein than other well-known cereals such as wheat, rice or corn. The degree of protein digestibility is impressive: it is 90%, which greatly exceeds the degree of protein digestibility when using soy, dairy products or wheat.

– Willem Malten writes in the American popular science magazine “Our World” (“Our World”).

A high degree of protein digestibility by domestic animals and poultry, namely, pigs and chickens, 05d46dad076dd9549b6ffeb0160dd06d mentioned in the “Scientific and technological reference for farmers” (“Handbook of Vegetable Science and Technology: Production, Compostion, Storage And Processing”, DK Salunkhe, SS Kadam ), released in New York in 1998. The experiments with the control group of fattening piglets showed that the digestibility of extruded amaranth of different varieties is 88-95%. The researchers also mention the economic benefit: if the pigs need conditionally 1 ton of wheat to get the required amount of protein, then amaranth grain is 800 kg enough. At the same time, the cost of amaranth grain is significantly lower than the cost of wheat grain, including due to the high yield of amaranth and drought resistance. As a result, the benefit of using amaranth compared with wheat with a significant number of pigs reaches several thousand dollars.

Note! A high protein content is also characteristic of feed, as well as grain, and non-feed varieties of amaranth. The difference is that forage and grain varieties do not contain or contain significantly fewer toxic substances – tannins, saponins, phenolic compounds, agglutinins, which are characteristic of non-forage varieties and which caused the amaranth’s unpopularity several decades ago.

Amaranth has the greatest match with the theoretically calculated ideal for feeding animal protein. So, for example, the coefficient of evaluation to the ideal protein:

  • amaranth – 75%;
  • cow milk – 72%;
  • soybean – 68%;
  • barley – 62%;
  • wheat – 60%;
  • corn – 44%;
  • peanuts – 32%.

At the same time, the cost of soybean is much higher than the cost of amaranth. The yield of wheat, compared to the yield of most amaranth fodder varieties (in particular, the most popular ones – “Giant” and “Kharkivsky-1 Medicinal”), is incomparably lower.

The benefits of amaranth for livestock and poultry: not only protein
It is known that amaranth contains the highest percentage of squalene among all plant crops, a substance whose value to humans has been repeatedly proven. Initially, squalene was discovered in the liver of deep-sea sharks. Later studies showed that squalene 19_07_06skvalen-formula produces a number of biological species (including human) in small amounts. At the moment, research in this direction is continuing, and there is a tendency to detect squalene in the liver of many mammals.

This suggests that squalene will be useful in the livestock sector. Specific experiments have not yet been made, but the successful use of amaranth as feed indicates that the presence of squalene in amaranth grains does not cause harm, but may be beneficial. So, feed amaranth, in comparison with other feed crops, gives large weight gain, increases the quantity and quality of milk and increases the value of poultry. Breeders and poultry farmers associate this with the quantity and quality of the protein in amaranth, but it is possible that the matter is not only in it.

But the fats contained in amaranth and their influence on farm animals have been studied repeatedly, including by domestic researchers.

In animal experiments, a supercholesterolemic, antioxidant, bactericidal effect of amaranth oil was studied and it was established that it did not have an almost irritating effect and belongs to safe compounds (IV class of toxicity).

– writes the Permian researcher Irina Korean in her work “Pharmacognostic study of seeds of various varieties of sad amaranth”.

The need for fats such as linoleic, linolenic and oleic acids, has been confirmed for a long time – even in the process of researching the properties of basic fats that are eaten by humans. Then, as a source of these fats for livestock and poultry, wheat was used predominantly (used by many feed manufacturers today). The presence of all the above-mentioned fatty acids in the amaranth grain suggests that amaranth grain is also a suitable substitute for more expensive wheat in this aspect.

Amaranth as a component of compound feeds
In compound feeds, the following amaranth products are used:

  • amaranth grain;
  • amaranth cake or meal;
  • Amaranth grass flour (grass granules).

Also amaranth green mass is included in the combined silo.

If the question of meal, meal and flour is mainly in the dosage, then with amaranth grain is more complicated.

Extrusion – the solution to the amaranth problem
Amaranth traditionally refers to small-seed crops. The mass of 1000 seeds is 0.4-0.55 g, and the size of the whole weevil often does not exceed 0.8 mm in diameter, and often fluctuates around 0.6-0.7 mm. This o-AMARANTH-facebook index is less than optimal when, for example, combined feed for pigs is considered. It is known that the introduction of grain into the diet of a pig in unground form is unacceptable, since whole grain has considerable biological protection against digestive enzymes produced in the stomach of a pig, as a result of which the digestibility of the feed decreases. Amaranth is not an exception: its digestibility in the form of whole grains is even lower than that of other traditional cultures. The reason for this is the presence of a dense hemicellulose membrane in the surface layer of the grain, which is practically not digested in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs.

This leads to the problem of grinding amaranth for animal feed. Grinding amaranth on conventional crushers is practically impossible due to the specificity of the structure and the size of its particles. Grinding grain of this culture to flour in other types of mills also leads to the loss of its feed advantages due to poor flowability of the product, high dispersibility and discrepancy of the particle size to the optimal standards at which the digestibility of the feed is maximum.

Extrusion can significantly increase the absorption of amaranth, because it deeply changes the technological properties of the grain. In addition, it contributes to the compaction of the product and increase its specific gravity, which is important in the case of loose feed.

However, the results of extruding other forage crops have created a prejudice against extruded amaranth. Extrusion opponents mention that with this method of processing, the grain in loose feed turns into a viscous, fluid mass due to the fact that the starch undergoes significant changes during extrusion, which lead to molecular disorganization, to the disappearance of natural crystallinity and to partial binding to lipids.

This is true for barley, corn and some other traditional crops. But amaranth, due to its high protein content, exhibits properties that are typical not for low protein feed crops like barley, but for high protein foods, such as soybeans. If the extrusion process is observed, amaranth turns into a free-flowing product that has nothing to do with viscous extruded barley. But at the same time, he stops dusting, which is a plus when f20131127085841-0-1 feeding him not only to pigs, but, for example, to laying hens in the form of loose feed.

The studies mentioned at the beginning of the article concerning protein digestibility refer specifically to extruded amaranth. The biological value of amaranth grain protein after extrusion increases: digestibility reaches the above 90%, the nitrogen balance coefficient is 0.86, the protein efficiency ratio is 2.4-3.6, the net protein utilization is 78.8. In addition, extrusion contributes to the decomposition of phytic acid amaranth, and, consequently, increase the availability of mineral elements of the feed. The biological value of extruded amaranth is 72.9.

All this led to the fact that today the vast majority of manufacturers of animal feed with amaranth grain – both granulated and loose – introduce extruded amaranth into the product. From a biological point of view, this increases the value of such feed.

Amaranth cake and meal – a full replacement for the standard options
Amaranth meal is successfully used in compound feeds for fattening broilers. Due to the high preservation of proteinaceous compounds, it can even partially replace soybean, although not 100% – a certain percentage of soybeans (depending on the other components of the feed) must be introduced into the poultry diet. More successfully, it replaces soybean meal in the compound feed: according to research, the complete replacement of soybean meal with amaranth does not affect the productivity of broilers.

Amaranth cake in feed for broilers completely replaces rapeseed and sunflower. One of the problems with the use of rape is that it is worth at least a little wrong with the dosage – and the mortality of the bird rises sharply. Errors in the dosage of amaranth cake, of course, lead to a decrease in the quality of products 20160224_115530, but do not lead to a jump in mortality among poultry.

As for sunflower, it often loses to amaranth meal in the amount of oil. In the domestic production, new technologies for squeezing sunflower oil are being introduced gradually, so the fat content in the waste is constantly decreasing. This is an absolute benefit for the producers of sunflower oil, however, in the livestock and poultry farming, sunflower waste for this reason began to be used less. Farmers are wondering how to replace this product, and many stop on amaranth meal, because by all measures it is not inferior to sunflower.

For clarity, we present a table of the content of nutrients in amaranth cake.

Nutritional value of amaranth cake

Amaranth green mass products – grass meal and granules
Grass meal made from amaranth green mass and grass granules exceed the standard grass flour and granules used in animal feed for pigs, cows, chickens and rabbits by the amount of vitamins. By the number of micro- and macroelements and by the fiber content, the flour from the green mass of 2676072 amaranth is comparable to the flour from the herbs. However, the percentage of fiber in some other herbs is significantly higher than in amaranth. For example, oats contain two times more fiber than green mass of amaranth, and this fact is decisive in the preparation of compound feed.

So, with a lack of fiber in the other components of the compound grass meal and amaranth granules are not used. But if the diet of livestock and / or poultry is made in such a way that the need for large amounts of fiber derived from grass meal and pellets is not, then the inclusion of amaranth grass meal or pellets is more appropriate than any other, due to the high content of vitamins. This is especially true of the diet of pigs and other animals and / or birds, the taste of meat which increase their value.

Amaranth as a part of compound feeds: reliable grades
Amaranth – a plant with a very large number of species. Some varieties grow only in locally restricted areas, for example, in the north of the United States, and their breeding in the territory of, say, Ukraine is associated with significant difficulties. There are several more or less “universal” varieties that have proven to be reliable and productive in agricultural production of several continents, and there are “local” varieties that are grown, for example, only in central Russia.

We list the main varieties of amaranth, which are successfully used in combined feed.

“Argentine”

Cluster feed grade with long characteristic panic colors of purple. In compound feeds, both grains and green mass are used.

“Aztec”

It is characterized by a large number of green mass and high yield, especially when late sowing. v-amaranth-golden-giantIn 1 kg of dry weight contains from 0.41 to 0.50 feed units. In this regard, in the production of combined feed is mainly used for the manufacture of herbal mixtures and granules, although the grain “Azteka” rarely added to the feed for pigs and broilers.

“Giant”

One of the most famous forage varieties of amaranth. It has characteristic discoid white seeds, dark green leaves and a panicle of either yellow or red color. Grains differ in the best indicators on a ratio of protein and other substances. The average yield of green mass is 1500-2000 centners per hectare, seeds – 21.7 centners per hectare. The fat content in the seeds – 7.9%. In compound feeds, respectively, both grains and green mass are used.

“Lera”

The stem is green, the leaves are green with red veins, the panicle is red, relatively small, the seeds are white. The protein content in seeds is 20.6%, the yield is up to 22 centners per hectare, which makes it possible to introduce this variety of amaranth into high-protein and at the same time inexpensive feed. Sowing is used to extend the green conveyor for animals, silage.

“Sem”

Grain goes mainly to the manufacture of butter, indicators on the protein content slightly lower – 19.5%. In the feed used mainly green mass.

“Kharkiv-1”

One of the most high-yielding varieties, which from 1 ha gives up to 2000 c of the biomass of the aerial part and up to 50 c of p11205891 grain. In the oil of this sort the largest amount of squalene is recorded. Used “Kharkiv-1” and in the food industry, and as part of the feed. In the latter case, the above-ground part can be used in any way: in the form of grass meal and granules or in the form of combisilos. Practice shows that domestic animals and poultry eat products of green mass of this variety of amaranth with greater hunting due to high juiciness.

For fodder purposes are also intended varieties “Kizlyarets”, “Moscow”, “Sad” and “Sterkh”. In some cases, used amaranth variety “Crimson”.

Despite the variety of fodder varieties of amaranth, animal feed manufacturers distinguish between them two – “Giant” and “Kharkiv-1”. Some add to this list Aztec. The grain of these varieties at a cost slightly higher than the grain of other varieties of amaranth, but the aboveground part is at the same price as the green mass of other varieties, despite the fact that its nutritional characteristics are somewhat superior to the rest.

The optimal percentage of amaranth in the feed
Various amaranth products are used in compound feeds for many types of domestic animals and poultry – broilers and laying hens, pigs, cows and rabbits, less often ducks and turkeys.

Amaranth in compound feeds for broilers
According to the research of Elena Vereshchagina “Amaranth in compound feeds for broiler chickens” (All-Russian Research and Technological Institute of Poultry, Sergiev Posad), good indicators of safety and live weight of broiler chickens show feed, including flour from grain of amaranth varieties “Argentine” and, in some cases, Crimson. Let’s quote from the study:

Inclusion in wheat-barley feed for broilers flour from amaranth grain crimson in an amount of from 5% to 15% ensures high safety of chickens, live weight at the level of the control group.

But:

Increasing the dose of amaranth (crimson) to 20% reduces digestibility and nutrient utilization of feed by broilers (digestibility coefficient of dry matter of feed – by 2.6%, digestibility of protein – by 2.2%, crude fat – by 4.2%, crude fiber – by 5.1%; use of nitrogen – by 3.9%, calcium – by 3.2%, phosphorus – by 3.7%, as a result of which the live weight of chickens is reduced by 7.9% (P <0, 05), feed consumption per I kg of increase increases by 7.9%, the meat quality of poultry deteriorates.

This is how Argentinian amaranth variety showed itself:

The use of flour from Argentinean amaranth grain in the composition of wheat-barley feed in doses of 10% and 15% provides high productive qualities of broilers: safety and live weight of chickens at the level of the control group (95-100% and 1894-1780 g versus 1651 g, P> 0.05) due to good digestibility and nutrient utilization of feed, including the availability of amino acids. The highest was the availability of lysine (67.5-88.1%), histidine (83.6-84.3%), arginine (85-66.3%); glutamic acid (86.5-89.9%), proline (65.2-67.9%), methionine (65.9-86.3%), leucine (84.5-85.6%).

The researcher notes that both varieties are suitable for inclusion in the feed:

The meat qualities of broilers of all experimental groups were high. There were no significant differences in the yield of muscles and the mass of edible parts of carcasses. The internal organs of chickens (liver, heart, lungs, kidneys, gizzard) did not undergo significant changes under the influence of various doses of amaranth in the feed. […] Organoleptic evaluation of broiler meat and broth, receiving from 10% to 20% amaranth grain, showed their high taste (4.55-5.0 points).

At the same time, according to the same study, the cost of feed, including flour from Argentinean grain, maxresdefault somewhat exceeded the cost of feed, which included the flour from the Bagryany grain. Therefore, the Bagryany variety is more cost-effective. But there are other indicators:

On the basis of zootechnical and physiological studies, a conclusion was made about the possibility of using in wheat-barley compound feeds for broilers up to 15% of flour from Argentinean amaranth grain, or 20%, enriching the feed mixture with a Kemzyme ferment. The Argentinean amaranth, despite its lower nutritional value compared to crimson amaranth, contains, apparently, a smaller amount of anti-nutritional substances, which allows the use of both types of amaranth in the same doses (up to 15%).

In addition, the results of incorporating amaranth green grass meal into broiler chickens were investigated. The results are as follows:

Tests on the use of artificial sushi flour from green mass of amaranth in feed mixtures for broilers in an amount of 3 and 5%, respectively, to the periods of their cultivation showed that bird productivity is not inferior to the control group that received grass flour from herbs for similar doses.

Poultry farmers also note a high level of safety (almost 100%) of the birds when they include amaranth meal as a substitute for sunflower and soybean meal. The optimal amount of amaranth meal in broiler feed:

  • age from 5 to 30 days – 14-17%;
  • age from 31 to 63 days – 15-20%.

Also in the feed for broilers can be used amaranth cake.

Amaranth in pig feed

The effectiveness of the use of amaranth in the composition of feed for pigs was confirmed by studies conducted by A. Kh. Karaev and I. D. Tmenov (North Ossetia). According to the results, the inclusion of amaranth in the rations of fattening pigs, photo pigs and repair pigs contributed to:

  • increase sow multiplicity by 14.2%;
  • decrease in live weight loss of lactating sows by 71%;
  • an increase in the “milkiness” of sows by 23.5%;
  • better preservation of pigs under the uterus – by 2.7%;
  • the best growth of suckling piglets – by 8.3%;
  • an increase in the intensity of the growth of repair pigs – by 11.1%;
  • reducing the cost of growing 1 pig by 5% (in feed units);
  • reduction of feed consumption per 1 kg increase in live weight of pigs by 5.9% (in terms of feed units).

To achieve these indicators, it is required to replace up to 20% of concentrated feeds with corn amaranth kombisilos. By comparing the results of fattening piglets with combisilos and amaranth (experimental group) and combisilos with alfalfa (control group), the following was established:

  • at the age of 8 months, the hogs from the experimental group weighed 15.8 kg more than the hanks of the control group;
  • the hogs from the experimental group reached a body weight of 100 kg a month earlier;
  • in the meat output from the carcass, the pigs of the “amaranth” group surpassed the “alfalfa” group by 12.8 kg (6.8%), and in terms of fat content they were inferior to the control group by 1.4 kg (6.6%);
  • per 1 kg of live weight gain in the control group consumed 5.9 feed units and 548 g of digestible protein, while in the experimental group these costs were 5.1 feed units and 495 g of protein, i.e. by 13.6% and 9.7% less than in the control group.

These experiments allowed the researchers to draw the following conclusion:

In almost all the experiments, the superiority of feed from amaranth over alfalfa was observed – both in terms of the nutrient consumption and digestibility, and in the final results, the final productivity of animals.

In addition, the composition of the feed for pigs also include amaranth cake and flour from the green mass of amaranth.

The results of using amaranth oilcake are comparable to the results of the inclusion of the Catalog-140 sunflower cake in pigs feed. The optimal amount of amaranth oil in pig feeds is 27-30%.

The inclusion of flour from the green mass of amaranth is preferable to feeding the pigs with flour from grasses due to the higher content of vitamins in the green mass of amaranth. According to the results of feeding pigs with feed from the amaranth green flour and forbs flour from the first group, a slight improvement in the taste of meat was observed. The optimal amount of herbal amaranth flour in the feed for pigs is 19-21%.

Amaranth grain in pig feed is included in the form of an extrudate in the amount of 10% in the presence of ground corn (20%), ground barley (20%), as well as sunflower meal, grass meal and salt. The increase in meat when using such feed (according to various sources) slightly exceeds the increase in meat when using wheat instead of amaranth, or remains within the normal range.

Amaranth in the composition of feed for cows
The research of the effect of amaranth feed on milk production and milk fat content was conducted by the Belarusian Research Institute of Animal Husbandry. For comparison, two control groups of animals were created, the first of which was fed combisilos from amaranth with corn, and the second – only corn silage. The yield of the first control group exceeded the yield of the second by 24.9%, the increase in fat content was 0.12% compared with the second group, and the protein content in milk of the first group was 0.25% higher than in the second. By organoleptic characteristics, the milk of the first and second group cows did not differ. Good results when feeding cows with amaranth green mass were obtained at Losevskoye, CJSC, Pavlovsky district, Voronezh region (2009): milk fat content after introducing amaranth green mass into the ration of dairy cows increased by 0.2%.

In the Chelyabinsk region, feeding young cattle corn-amaranth, and amaranth silage in the amount of 51-58% of the total nutritional value of rations provided an increase in average daily weight gain of 18.1-26.2% compared with fattening groups of animals only corn silage. At the same time, the meat of calves treated with amaranth was of better quality.

To increase dairy and meat productivity of cattle and reduce the cost of feed per unit of production, it is recommended to include in the rations of animals amaranth, corn-amaranth and sorghum-amaranth silage in the amount of 30-35% of the total feed, and when fattening young cattle – in 51-58% of the total nutritional value of the feed.

Amaranth in the composition of feed for other types of livestock and poultry

The inclusion of extruded amaranth in corn-soy rations for laying hens leads to a significant reduction in feed for the production of a dozen eggs. At the same time, there are no differences in the strength and thickness of the shell.

Also in the rations for layers it is advisable to introduce amaranth meal instead of sunflower due to the presence of more useful fats in 1-119 amaranth. However, it is important not to overdo the amount of meal, since when the fat content of the mixed fodder is exceeded in laying hens, there is a decrease in the amount of the final product. According to various sources, the optimal amount of amaranth meal in the diet of laying hens is 11-14% and never exceeds 15%.

It is acceptable to replace grass meal with amaranth green flour in combined feed for layers. There are no noticeable differences when using both types of grass meal. The optimal amount of flour from amaranth greens in feed for chickens is about 15%.

The green mass of amaranth in compound feeds for rabbits is widely used. Due to the fact that rabbits need much more herbal food than most other domestic animals, the inclusion of amaranth in their diet is more advisable than using herbs. There are two reasons for this:

The green mass of forage varieties of amaranth does not contain toxic substances, in contrast to raznotravya, where periodically there are plants with a small amount of toxic substances. In addition, amaranth is more resistant to toxins in the soil and air, so its green mass is considered more environmentally friendly than the grasses.
Amaranth contains a greater amount of vitamins, including the rutin (vitamin P) required by the rabbit.
The optimal amount of grass meal in the composition of feed for rabbits is not less than 35%.

Green grass amaranth flour is also used in compound feeds for ducks and turkeys.

Amaranth compound feed manufacturers
Today, the production of compound feed with amaranth is put on stream in the United States, Mexico and some countries of South America, as well as in the south of the Scandinavian Peninsula, in Germany and other Western European countries.

On the territory of Ukraine, Russia, Belarus and other CIS countries streaming feed production with amaranth is registered in certain regions. We owe a large number of studies on the properties of amaranth in the composition of compound feed, as well as the diversity of feeds created by the results of these studies, in the Voronezh region. One of the most famous in the central part of Russia, as well as among Ukrainian consumers, is a feed mill in Voronezh (“Voronezh Ecological Company”). It produces complete feed with amaranth for all types of farm animals and poultry. In particular, he suggests:

  • feed for broiler chickens from 0 to 14 days old;
  • “Starter” – for broilers chickens aged 7-28 days;
  • granulated feed for broilers aged 29-60 days;
  • granulated feed for laying hens from 120 days to the end of the food period.

As well as granulated feed with amaranth for rabbits, for fattening young cattle, for piglets, for turkey chickens, as well as universal feed for feeding any farm animals.

Amaranth compound feed produces several small enterprises in the Luhansk region. The most famous among them is the manufacturer of complete feed mixtures based on Amaranth amaranth, located in the village of Metalist in the Luhansk region.

Unfortunately, as noted by an agronomist from the village. Alexander Deinega of Veselinovo, Mykolaiv Oblast, who has been cultivating grain and forage varieties of amaranth for more than 20 years, this plant is still little known among animal feed manufacturers.

The audience of managers and specialists welcomed everything they heard. Some have attempted in this direction, but in this area this matter has not progressed. Conservatism and unwillingness to reorganize to something new took over.

– the agronomist complains in an interview with the newspaper “Agrarian”.

Nevertheless, slowly and surely appears in the CIS more and more adherents of amaranth, so it is likely that in the near future the livestock and poultry spheres will use this plant along with the usual feed and amaranth will be included in the list of traditional feed crops.

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