One of the main problems of modern medicine is drug-induced liver damage. In fact, this is not a disease; these are various pathological processes occurring in the tissues of the liver and leading to their destruction. Their consequence is a serious disruption of the functioning of the violation of this body, which leads at least to a significant decrease in the standard of living of a sick person, and as a maximum – to death. pechenWhen it should be noted that deaths from LIPP (abbreviated as “drug-induced liver damage”) are quite frequent: according to various sources, from 13% to 61% of patients die.
LIPP is not insured by anyone. They are not the result of any particular disease. But they appear, as a rule, in the process of treating serious diseases. Often these are disorders in the field of oncology, but the most famous “source” of LIPP is, perhaps, tuberculosis. More precisely, it is not he himself, but one of the most effective substances in the case of his treatment – isoniazid.
Isoniazid as an example of a highly toxic drug
Isoniazid is a prodrug that is activated by hemoprotein, KatG peroxidase catalase. If one does not consider in detail its biochemical properties, one can say that this substance is effective in combating a number of very stable, fairly rare and “bad” bacteria for the human body. In 2 parts, microbacterium tuberculosis. There are two types of the latter: some divide quickly, others slowly. Isoniazid kills the first and stops the growth and reproduction of the second. Additional drugs stabilize related processes that are not as dangerous to humans as bacteria, but are neglected by tuberculosis, and the person recovers.
The problem is that a considerable dose of isoniazid is required for the destruction of tuberculosis microbacteria. And it is very toxic. And if a liver of a healthy person could cope with a small portion, then the need for treatment of tuberculosis does not always cope. According to approximate estimates, 20% of patients who used this substance against tuberculosis, received drug-induced liver damage. Hepatocellular necrosis, fulminant liver failure, common massive necrosis, cirrhosis of the liver – all of these are frequent consequences of isoniazid. And all these diseases can lead to the destruction of the body with toxins due to gross violations of the liver and subsequent death from it.
Not only isoniazid leads to such consequences. Rifampicin and many other drugs used in chemotherapy are quite likely to cause all of the above. Therefore, 3 patients who have long-term treatment with the use of such drugs, warn, as a rule, immediately about the high risk of developing negative consequences for the liver. Actually, surely anyone who has ever been interested in such issues has heard that chemotherapy often leads to death or disability. Severe abnormalities in the liver – one of the most common causes of this outcome. Although the same isoniazid adversely affects the nervous system (and not the central, and the peripheral, and vegetative), and the heart, and recorded lesions of the gastrointestinal tract during its reception.
What to do when healthy medicine is so harmful? Look for mitigating, protecting substances that would neutralize its side effects. This is the work of scientists around the world. And in 2015, Voronezh State University decided to try to neutralize the side effects of isoniazid oil from amaranth embryos.
Scientific basis and effectiveness of amaranth leaves as an adjuvant in the treatment of serious diseases
Scientific reasons to suspect the effectiveness of amaranth when trying to mitigate the side effects of isoniazid among Voronezh scientists were. It has long been proven and even reflected in the orders of state medical organizations all over the world (for example, Order No. 4572 of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of Russia dated July 21, 2006 No. 4572 “On approving the standard of care for tuberculosis patients”, etc.) that patients with tuberculosis when using isoniazid for detoxification within 3-6 weeks, you should prescribe a course of taking high doses of vitamins (especially group B).
In cases of suspected drug-induced liver damage and disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, cyanocobalamin, as well as folic acid, nicotinamide, calcium pantothenate are commonly used. And with the appearance of neurotoxic reactions as a result of chemotherapy, an increase in the dose of pyridoxine to the maximum daily dose (200 mg) is allowed. Russian researcher S. Borzakov in his work “Medicinal lesions of the liver in children with tuberculosis” writes that vitamin E prevents the violation of bile formation as a result of taking highly toxic anti-tuberculosis drugs.
Amaranth leaves as a source of B vitamins
Thiamine, riboflavin and pyridoxine are vitamins, which belong to the group of vitamins B. All of them are contained in fresh leaves of amaranth in a sufficiently large amount. In the process of drying and storage, they gradually erode, so the dried leaves of amaranth are considered less useful than fresh, but also recommended for patients who take highly toxic drugs that can adversely affect the liver and stomach.
Basically, patients are prescribed vitamin complexes as a food additive. In modern biochemistry, opinions on the effectiveness of this method of obtaining vitamins are divided.
In most countries, scientific researchers and doctors of the “old school” adhere to the theory that vitamin complexes are more effective as a dietary supplement. Although their digestibility is lower than vitamins obtained from food, but the most useful substance in them is incommensurable more. As a result, the patient’s body receives it in the required quantities.
However, the Norwegian biochemists, and after them their Danish colleagues came to the conclusion that, although the digestibility of vitamin complexes is high, the amount of active substance in the body ultimately turns out to be lower than when patients use vitamins naturally, that is, as part of food.
It is noteworthy that in some countries, such as Canada, Germany, New Zealand, doctors have previously been inclined to develop a specific diet for patients who required higher doses of vitamins and other substances. And vitamin complexes are more common in countries with less developed medicine, including in the CIS.
However, in the territory of Ukraine, Russia and other CIS countries, when prescribing nutritional supplements containing certain vitamin B groups, many doctors choose products that are synthesized from natural raw materials containing the necessary vitamins and are least chemically processed. Among them there are vitamin complexes on the basis of amaranth.
Due to the relatively low prevalence of this plant compared to other medicinal plants (chamomile or hypericum, for example), almost all vitamin complexes based on it consist of natural, almost untreated raw materials. Large pharmaceutical companies that have the ability to carry out such processing add amaranth as an active or auxiliary substance to other medicines, but almost do not manufacture preparations consisting entirely of amaranth. Companies that specialize directly in the manufacture of medicines from medicinal plants produce vitamin complexes from amaranth leaves (group B vitamins) and amaranth oil (vitamin E) quite actively.
They are preferred by a number of doctors, noting their greater efficiency in comparison with analogues that have undergone chemical treatment. It is curious that, as a rule, such food supplements are prescribed more to patients of private clinics who have a risk or suspicion of drug-induced liver damage and disorders in the gastrointestinal tract.
The use of amaranth oil in the treatment of patients with tuberculosis
However, despite the registered effectiveness of amaranth vitamin complexes containing B vitamins, in the treatment of patients with LIPP and gastrointestinal disorders, the amaranth oil should be considered more effective in the treatment with isoniazid.
Study of the effect of amaranth oil on the body of patients in the treatment of tuberculosis
In 2015, under the direction of Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor Vladimir Nikolaevsky, a study was conducted, the purpose of which was to study the effect of amaranth oil on the organism affected by isoniazid. The study was conducted on laboratory animals, but its results are guided at the moment and in the treatment of humans. Animals, namely rats, were administered various doses of isoniazid. After which they were divided into two groups. The first — the control — was given nothing more, and the second was given oil from amaranth seed germs. The results were encouraging.
Throughout the observation period, the animals in the group given amaranth oil had less pronounced symptoms of isoniazid intoxication. There were no convulsions that were observed in animals that were given only isoniazid, without oil. Also, the control group had impaired functional activity of the heart (that is, it did not work properly), and the group that was given amaranth oil did not have such side effects. But the most important is the fact that in the group of rats that were given amaranth oil, the overall clinical condition was much better than in animals of the control group and none of them died – while the mortality of rats in the control group exceeded 50% .
The researchers noted the positive effects of amaranth oil on all organs and organ systems that affect isoniazid. Based on the research, pharmacologist Yekaterina Muzalevskaya defended her thesis “Experimental justification for the use of amaranth seed oil for the correction of isoniazid complications.”
Amaranth oil as a protection of the liver
The tissue that makes up the liver is called parenchyma: it consists of those cells that are responsible for processing toxins and cleansing the body. Therefore, when the liver parenchyma is mentioned, it can be said that the case concerns the whole organ. Regular intake of isoniazid (as well as once in a very large number) leads to changes in the liver parenchyma, namely the development of necrobiotic and inflammatory processes in it. Necrobiosis is a cell change that precedes necrosis. In the process of necrobiosis, the metabolism is significantly disturbed, and the cell is reborn, ceases to perform its functions. She cannot recover from necrobiosis. The inflammatory process, in contrast to 9-necrobiotic, is reversible, but even in this case, in case of multiple lesions of the parenchyma, the liver loses the ability to perform its direct functions.
Press oil from embryo seeds of amaranth, according to the aforementioned research, hinders the development of both necrobiotic and inflammatory processes. The fact is that in itself it is an anti-inflammatory agent, which, in particular, is due to its use in colds, inflammation of the intestines and other inflammatory processes. In addition, amaranth oil contains biochemical elements that are necessary for the synthesis of cells of tissues of many organs, but which in the body of an average person are in short supply.
Due to this, amaranth oil does not allow necrobiosis to develop, since it nourishes the cells with deficient elements, as a result of which the metabolism in the parenchyma is not disturbed. It also neutralizes them at the first micro-foci of inflammatory processes. Thus, the liver parenchyma suffers significantly less when taking isoniazid.
The second negative consequence of taking highly toxic drugs for the liver is lipid peroxidation. Otherwise, this process is called lipid peroxidation. Without going into details, suffice it to say that this process is also one of the main consequences of radiation exposure. The results of such irradiation are known to all: it is a transformation of tissues, a disruption in the work of almost all organs due to their significant changes. When isoniazid is taken, lipid peroxidation is not as active as during radioactive irradiation, and does not affect such large areas, however, long-term administration is comparable to the effects of small irradiation.
Amaranth oil inhibits lipid peroxidation in the liver. In fact, it is one of the natural hepatoprotectors (this is the name of the group of substances that protect the liver from any 10 negative influences). If you turn to chemistry, you can see that all natural hepatoprotectors contain phospholipids, antioxidants, amino acids and a number of vitamins. Artificial hepatoprotectors pharmaceuticals manufactured in the likeness of natural. In amaranth oil, phospholipids are present in large quantities, it is also known for its antioxidant properties. Interestingly, both amaranth grain and its leaves can be considered a hepatoprotector, because, although they contain slightly less phospholipids and antioxidants than the oil squeezed out of it, it can also boast the presence of amino acids (i.e. proteins, which, as you know, amaranth more than in other cereals) and vitamins (for details on amaranth vitamins, see “Preparing a diet with fresh amaranth leaves”).
In this case, the hepatoprotective effect of amaranth oil is that these biochemical substances also provide a complete metabolism in the liver cells. Healthy cells, in turn, allow the body to perform immediate functions.
Also common when taking isoniazid and other highly toxic drugs is cytolysis syndrome. It is also called the syndrome of violation of the integrity of hepatocytes. Hepatocytes are cells of the liver parenchyma, that is, the very cells that distinguish the liver from other organs and ensure the ability of this organ to work with toxins. Hepatocyte integrity disorder syndrome suggests two main such “integrity violations”:
- destruction of cell membranes, which makes the hepatocyte incompetent;
- the development of necrobiosis in the cell, because of which the cell is destroyed and the toxins, which the hepatocyte “processes”, enter the blood plasma and poison the person.
About the effectiveness of amaranth oil with necrobiosis mentioned above, but what about the cell membranes? The fact is that the membranes of many cells in the human body, including hepatocytes, consist mainly of fat. Fats that are consumed by humans and which, accordingly, become the “building material” for which cells, are of two varieties: unsaturated and saturated. Ideally, cell membranes should be formed primarily from unsaturated fats: such membranes are more elastic, resilient, permeable, thereby speeding up the metabolism and the cell performs its functions better. But the unsaturated fats in the diet of an average person are quite small, since they are contained in rarer vegetable oils (olive, amaranth, linseed, pumpkin, etc.). Basically, a person eats saturated fats — these are all animal fats, 12 refined sunflower oil, margarines, spreads, fats in confectionery, etc. With a lack of unsaturated fats, the body “has to” build cellular membranes from saturated ones. Such membranes are more dense, less permeable, more solid and fragile, the metabolism through them, respectively, slows down significantly, the cells are worse updated.
If the hepatocyte membranes are composed largely of saturated fat, they will collapse more quickly and update more slowly. Therefore, to speed up the metabolism and maintain hepatocytes, it makes sense to use amaranth oil, which will supply the cells with the necessary amount of unsaturated fats. As a result, the renewal of liver cells will significantly accelerate, so it will be able to process even the excess amount of toxins that enter the human body with isoniazid and other toxic drugs.
All this in a complex makes pressed amaranth oil extremely desirable for those people who are treated with such medicines. According to the study, the optimal dose to reduce all the listed side effects is 600 mg of pressed oil from amaranth embryos per 1 kg of weight. The dose may increase or decrease with increasing or decreasing the amount of toxic drugs. The researchers did not find side effects of amaranth oil for the liver.
Amaranth oil as protection of the vascular system and gastrointestinal tract
Violation of the gastrointestinal tract when taking highly toxic drugs is, in fact, poisoning. At first, it is not very difficult, the patient may not even notice it. There are 13 minor pains, mainly in the small intestine. They may be spasmodic, or they may be permanent. The consequences of such poisoning, as a rule, pass on their own, but on condition that the toxin no longer enters the body.
Nonetheless, treated patients continue to use a toxic drug to cure another disease, so the extent of gastrointestinal lesions increases. In proportion to his pain increases, after two or three days in the most severe cases, it becomes unbearable, and the patient is hospitalized.
Important! Best of all with the slightest pain in the stomach, if a person has recently begun to take a certain drug with a large number of side effects, contact your doctor and change this drug. Unfortunately, in some cases, there is no alternative to a toxic drug. In this case, the doctor is obliged to assess the risk of developing serious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and inform the patient. The most serious complications are death of intestinal tissues, ie, necrosis, intestinal infarction. If the risk of such consequences is high, the drug is often canceled.
In most cases, the pain remains at a tolerable, inconspicuous level, and it often happens that the patient does not even see the need to report it to the doctor, believing that “he just ate something wrong.” This can continue throughout the course of treatment with a highly toxic drug. At full strength, the lesion usually manifests itself closer to the end of the course of administration and in many cases, in particular, when taking isoniazid, ends with intestinal ischemia.
Ischemic bowel disease is a strong contraction or blockage of blood vessels in the intestine. It is particularly likely to develop in people who, prior to taking a toxic drug, suffered from cardiovascular diseases, in particular atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension and other diseases associated with high and low blood pressure, etc.
But ischemia of the intestine due to the intake of toxic drugs can also develop with a relatively healthy cardiovascular system. In this case, they talk about the so-called non-occlusive ischemic disease, that is, not a secondary, not a direct consequence of another disease. If, for the treatment of occlusive intestinal ischemia, a patient, as a rule, needs to prescribe cardiac medications, then with non-occlusive disease, it is enough either to eliminate the irritant, that is, the toxic drug, or to protect the intestine. Due to the inappropriateness of the first (since a person may die or become disabled due to a serious illness that is treated with a toxic drug), doctors try to apply the second method.
In the “Experimental justification of the use of amaranth seed oil for the correction of isoniazid complications” it is also proposed to use amaranth oil to solve the problem of protecting the intestines. First, taking oil at the same time will have a positive effect on the liver and the gastrointestinal tract (and on other organ systems), therefore, it is unwise to select two different “protective” agents; secondly, the results of the use of amaranth oil to protect the gastrointestinal tract were indeed encouraging.
Here is what the researcher writes:
In addition, for the first time, a positive effect of amaranth seed oil, administered for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes, on the microcirculatory processes in the mesentery vessels of the small intestine of rats was revealed for the first time in the TXM intoxication model. The ability of amaranth seed oil to reduce the severity of destruction of the great vessels in the mesentery has been proven, as evidenced by a 6-fold decrease in the number of hemorrhages recorded in the mesentery “windows” of animals in the control group. In biomicroscopy, in contrast to the control and the comparison drug, throughout the entire observation period, there was no destructive disturbance of microvessels, accompanied by diapedes of the blood corpuscles and hemorrhages. Starting from the 7th day of the experiment, there was a lack of intravascular aggregation and staging phenomena. Along with this, against the background of the injection of amaranth seeds for therapeutic purpose, an increase in the capacity of the microvasculature was revealed 1.3-1.4 times (p <0.05) due to an increase in the number of capillaries by 1 mm square. mesentery and diameter venules.
What does it mean?
Microcirculatory processes in the vessels is the circulation of blood in the capillaries of the intestine. The speed of blood circulation provides a faster metabolism between the contents of the small intestine and the 15-circulatory system, that is, in fact, the rest of the body. The faster the metabolism occurs, the faster the body gets what it needs, the more food is absorbed and the better the gastrointestinal tract is cleared from toxic substances.
When an excessive amount of toxins in the intestine, including poisoning, the body does not have time to clean the intestine, because of what toxins in it linger, provoke the development of inflammatory processes, transform and destroy the cells of local tissues, seriously disrupting the gastrointestinal tract.
The oil from germ seeds of amaranth, as follows from the words of the researcher, improves the blood microcirculation in the intestine by increasing the lumen of the vessels. In the intestine of an average person, again, due to the large amount of saturated fat, the vessels are, as a rule, harder and slightly narrowed. If nothing harmful is, then they cope with their work. But as soon as poisonous substances become larger, the small lumen of the vessels no longer suffices for the volume of blood that is necessary to remove the main mass of toxins from the intestine. Amaranth oil makes the walls of blood vessels thinner, more elastic and increases the lumen of the blood vessels, which causes more blood to flow there. This, in turn, contributes to a more rapid metabolism, and as a result – the acceleration of the elimination of toxins from the intestine. Inflammatory, destructive processes do not have time to develop, and that is why when you use amaranth oil, the small intestine, even with a large amount of a toxic drug, suffers much less.
In addition to the capillaries, in the gastrointestinal tract there are, of course, veins and arteries — the very great vessels that the researcher is talking about. Poisons, entering the intestine, begin to produce a destructive effect there, because of which, in fact, the stomach of a person begins to hurt intensely. These substances affect all tissues: destroy the cells that make up the gastrointestinal tract, destroy and the cells of the vessels passing there. On the capillaries it is almost unnoticeable: there is too little blood in them. But, when the destruction of the tissue of the great vessels begins, abundant hemorrhages occur. It is this blood that enters the 17k masses, and that is why it is believed that the stool with blood is a signal of a serious danger to the gastrointestinal tract: damage to the veins and arteries in the intestine is no different from any other damage to the veins and arteries.
Experiments of the researcher proved that taking amaranth oil reduces destruction, that is, the destruction of the great vessels when taking isoniazid. This conclusion can be extrapolated to any other toxins that produce a similar effect. Amaranth oil by accelerating the metabolism and again the presence of the necessary biochemical elements accelerates the renewal of cells of damaged tissues. As a result of hemorrhage, if they do, it is very small and almost dangerous (although it all depends on the amount of toxins and the degree of damage that toxins produce). Hence the “6-fold decrease in the number of hemorrhages” referred to in the study.
According to the results of the experiment, the recommended dose for the liver, which is 600 mg of oil per 1 kg of the patient’s weight, is also optimal for the gastrointestinal tract with an average lesion. However, if the number of drugs is increased (for example, in patients with cardiovascular diseases who need additional cardiac drugs), then the dose of amaranth oil should also be increased. The maximum allowable is 1200 mg of oil per 1 kg of patient weight, but the recommended range is 1000 mg per 1 kg of weight.
The general effect of amaranth oil when taking highly toxic drugs
If we briefly talk about the benefits of oil from amaranth germ seeds when taking highly toxic drugs, we can draw the following conclusions:
Amaranth oil is a good protection for the liver, because it has a hepatoprotective effect. This means that it speeds up the metabolism and restoration of hepatocytes – liver cells – which, in turn, allows the liver to process toxins into the body faster. Thus, with previous doses of the drug, the effect of toxins on the body decreases, and the benefits remain hands-liver, however.
Amaranth oil inhibits necrobiotic processes in the liver and prevents inflammation from developing.
In the gastrointestinal tract, oil from amaranth seed embryos increases capillary permeability, which improves the blood microcirculation in the intestine. This, in turn, quickly frees the intestines from toxic substances and does not allow destructive, inflammatory processes to develop, and as a result – pain syndrome.
Amaranth oil strengthens and ensures rapid renewal in the tissues of the great vessels in the gastrointestinal tract. This prevents abundant hemorrhage, even with relatively strong toxins.
In addition, researchers have noted the positive effect of amaranth oil on the reaction of the central nervous system. When taking highly toxic drugs in patients with convulsions and other negative reactions of the nervous system to the drug occur. According to the observations, the number of such reactions decreased several times when the test was given amaranth oil.
The rate of exposure to amaranth oil when taking highly toxic drugs
The experiments were carried out both on laboratory animals, which had long been administered small doses of isoniazid, and on animals, on which they began to give a toxic drug simultaneously with amaranth oil.8
The condition of the former improved around the 10th day of the administration of amaranth oil along with the main “treatment” of toxic drugs. The condition of the animals in the second group remained stable throughout the entire observation period. As a result, the lesions of the internal organs of the first group were somewhat broader than the lesions of the internal organs of the second group. This allows us to conclude that amaranth oil should begin to use at the same time as the appointment of highly toxic drugs.
Important! It is necessary to ask the attending physician at what time it is necessary to use oil – before taking the drug or after taking it, and also as taking not only the drug, but also the oil should be combined with food intake.
It is also worth noting that the mortality in the second group of animals was less than 1%. Mortality in the first group of animals was more than 15%. However, mortality in the groups that were not given amaranth oil in general, exceeded 70%. Therefore, it is safe to say that the press oil from amaranth seed embryos significantly contributes to an increase in survival in animals. Consequently, in the human body, it prevents the development of those processes that often lead to death or disability several years after chemotherapy.