We continue to publish the results of research amaranth and products derived from it. Such information allows you to verify the benefits of plants for the body.
In this article we present the materials of clinical studies of biologically active substances of amaranth oil. The authors of the research are I. M. Kamysheva, S. N. Kulakova, A. G. Yushkevich (Academy of National Security of Russia, All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Fats, Institute of Nutrition, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Forma Medical Center LLC).
Why for research was chosen precisely amaranth oil and amaranth oil for cosmetics
Amaranth oil is a relatively new product. Therefore, the authors of the study decided to study it in order to demonstrate the true role and significance of the biologically active substances contained in it not only in metabolic processes in the human body, but also to consider the possibility of using oil for specific purposes. For example, therapeutic or prophylactic.
The authors of the study used a variety of literary sources, as well as the results of the application of the biologically active additive amaranth.
Amaranth oil: what is it, what substances does it contain
The researchers note that the oil in this plant contains the following components:
- vitamin E (tocopherols);
- vitamin F;
- polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Given the composition of amaranth oil, it effectively manifested itself in the treatment of various ailments and disorders of the human body associated with the immune system, metabolic processes.
The high efficiency of amaranth oil is due to the fact that it contains a large amount (when compared with other vegetable oils) biological active substances. For example, squalene and tocopherols are much more than in sea buckthorn oil.
In addition, mucosal membranes of the upper respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal tract are susceptible to the effects of amaranth oil. What provides high% of mastering of all components.
Features of the manufacture of dietary supplements from amaranth
According to researchers, the most preferred method of obtaining dietary supplements from amaranth is the method of extraction of biologically active substances from the seeds of a plant using corn oil.
Also, researchers note that with carbon dioxide extraction under high pressure, it is possible to obtain a preparation in which there is a large amount of biologically active substances. Approximately 10-100 times higher than in the native product. That is, in fact, it turns out the most concentrated, artificially created, but at the same time “purest” biologically active substance.
However, researchers also note the fact that parapharmaceuticals are obtained as a result – that is, a drug. It requires additional clinical studies. Since, in the event that the concentration of a substance is many times higher than the natural one, there may be a violation of the proportional ratio of the components of biochemical reactions that have formed in the living cell. That is, it is necessary to say that the optimal dynamic equilibrium of the interaction reactions, the natural stages of transformation of one substance into another, is disturbed.
“Parapharmaceuticals should be prescribed by a specialist and require additional knowledge from a physician, primarily in the field of phytopharmacology.” During oil extraction, the concentration of biologically active substances is significantly lower, the component composition approaches the natural composition of the plant substance, and in this case the oil should be considered as a nutraceutical, which can “be used by patients both on the recommendation of a physician and in many situations independently” (Chudakov S. Yu. , 2001).
Biologically active substances of amaranth oil: what it is and how they act
One of the main components of amaranth oil are linoleic and linolenic acids – these are essential polyunsaturated fatty acids.
These acids are extremely important for the body, since they provide lipid biosynthesis. Acids are combined under the common name of vitamin F. They are an integral link in the chain of successive biochemical reactions of fat metabolism. More on this in the diagram below.
This should take into account the fact that linoleic acid (belonging to the Omega-6 family) is not synthesized in the body. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure its regular intake with food.
A-linolenic acid (belonging to the Omega-3 family) is formed in plants from Omega-6, a-linolenic and arachidonic acids are synthesized in the body from linoleic acid, which is also the only precursor of arachidonic acid.
Why is it important to receive linoleic acid
If this substance enters the body in insufficient quantities, there will be a violation of the synthesis of linolenic arachidonic acid, respectively, and prostaglandins. As a result:
- the regulation of the normal activity of cells will be completely disrupted;
- violations of cholesterol metabolism;
- fat metabolism disorders;
- atherosclerosis is activated.
As a result of research, it was found that people suffering from atherosclerosis and other disorders caused and occurring with hypercholesterolemia, when used in the treatment of food with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, show a noticeable decrease in the level:
- low density lipoproteins.
In addition, there is a more rapid increase in the level of high-density lipoproteins in the serum.
It was also found that activation of fibrinolysis and a decrease in the coagulating properties of blood in patients with coronary atherosclerosis are observed.
Noting the benefits of amaranth oil and the biologically active substances contained in it, the researchers note the effectiveness of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of such illnesses as:
- bronchial asthma;
Squalene in amaranth oil
Depending on the amaranth grade and the method of producing amaranth oil, the level of squalene in oil can reach 10%. Such a high concentration of squalene is no longer in any other plant. Typically, in vegetable oils, the level of squalene does not exceed several fractions of one percent.
What is squalene?
The name of this substance comes from the word Squalus, which has a family of deep-sea sharks. It was in their liver that the substance was first discovered in 1916. At the same time, there were no malignant neoplasms in sharks.
Today it is already established that squalene contains:
- in human fat;
- in animal fat;
- in the liver of most animals;
- in yeast;
- in vegetable oils.
It is also one of the components of human skin. The figures below provide a detailed scheme for the participation of squalene and sterols in the cholesterol metabolism.
A substance such as polyunsaturated triterpene should be considered separately. Due to the disruption of cholesterol formation from squalene and the conversion of cholesterol to other biologically active substances (bile acids, hormones, etc.), hypercholesterolemia develops, which is considered to be the leading cause of atherosclerosis.
Researchers note the fact that squalene is a natural component of sebum (its level reaches 15%). Therefore, it is well compatible with the skin. Squalene is a kind of antioxidant that provides full protection of the skin properties.
However, it is necessary to understand the fact that the composition of skin lipids varies significantly with the age of a person. For example, it was found that the level of squalene in the skin of a 10–20-year-old person is at least 3 times higher than in the skin of a 70-year-old person.
Other substances contained in amaranth oil
The composition of amaranth oil contains a large amount of biologically active substances. Each of them deserves separate attention. Researchers describe each of them in their work.
Or tetracyclic alcohols. It was found that the level of their content in amaranth oil is about 3-4 times higher than in other vegetable oils. For example, corn.
In higher plants, sitosterol and some other sterols are the most common phytosterols.
They are needed in order to provide synthesis:
- androgens and estrogens, that is, sex hormones;
- adrenal hormones;
- vitamin D;
- bile acids.
Cholesterol and phytosterols – are a mandatory, extremely important component of the main framework of cell membranes.
Together with phospholipids, the sterols provide the permeability of the cell membranes, that is, we are talking about a complete metabolism.
Indeed, sterol molecules have such a structure that provides an effective complementary interaction with phospholipid components in the membrane.
Phytosterols can be considered analogous to cholesterol (they are similar in their structure and general functions), they block the absorption of cholesterol in the gastrointestinal tract, which prevents its subsequent possible excessive intake in the body, thereby reducing its blood levels.
Interestingly, about the safety of products that contain phytosterols, said the Scientific Committee on Food of the European Union.
In addition, some studies have noted the use of phytosterols, both in normal diet and in the treatment of:
- if you enrich your daily diet with phytosterols up to two to three grams per day, you will be able to reduce the level of cholesterol in the blood by about 10%, even if you take this portion at a time, rather than breaking it for the whole day;
- when using drugs to reduce cholesterol, the presence of phytosterols in the diet makes drugs more effective.
Note! The researchers cited data indicating that the use of products containing PUFA, phytosterols, squalene, has a significant impact on the concentration of cholesterol in the blood and on the ratio of lipoproteins. The amaranth supplement contains a complex of the above listed biologically active substances.
Tocopherols (high molecular weight cyclic alcohols, from Greek. Tokos – offspring, phero – carry) have different forms: α- and β-tocopherols possess the greatest biological activity (vitamin E) and practically do not show antioxidant properties, γ- and δ-tocopherols have strong antioxidant properties and minimal biological activity.
Vitamin E is a very important element that is actively involved in the biosynthesis of proteins, as well as in cell proliferation. It is also important for tissue respiration of the body and other extremely important processes of cellular metabolism. This vitamin belongs to the group of immunomodulators, which are necessary in order to ensure the full function of spermatogenesis, prevents resorption of the embryo (in females). In practice, this is reflected in the fact that there is a significant acceleration of cell growth of the wound surface. That is, this function is very important in the event that it is necessary to ensure the prompt healing of various diseases of the skin surface. For example, such as:
- trophic ulcers;
- psoriasis and more.
This function also helps in the treatment of adenoma.
The researchers, based on data from other literature, note the following: as oxidation inhibitors, γ- and δ-tocopherols increase the resistance of the oil to air oxygen (oxidation), to temperature effects, in their presence in cells under normal conditions, self-oxidation is completely inhibited PUFA (including vitamin F), they are involved in the inhibition of peroxidation, stabilization of cell membranes, increase the mechanisms of cellular protection (local immunity) and, in general, the immune properties of the organism.
It is noted that the true biological activity of the oil is due not only to the presence of tocopherols in it, but also the% content of their different fractions (of course, each fraction has its own special properties). In amaranth oil there is an optimal ratio of fractions, which are characterized by antioxidant properties, and fractions, which clearly manifest biologically active properties.
Clinical studies of amaranth oil
Research conducted by the Institute of Medical Sciences has shown that amaranth oil is incredibly effective in dietary lipid-lowering therapy.
In particular, in the course of such studies, reasonable data were obtained indicating that linoleic and linolenic acids in combination with prostaglandins significantly increase the overall capillary permeability. They also have a bronchodilator effect and alter the properties of sputum and secretions of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract.
Amaranth oil in the treatment of ENT diseases
In order to determine how amaranth oil affects the secretion of the upper respiratory tract, as well as to understand how it can be used in the treatment of sinusitis, rhinopharyngitis, for three years, specialized studies have been conducted in St. Petersburg at the Scientific Research Institute of LOR-organs. At the same time, the intranasal method of using amaranth oil was used.
As a result of the research, it was possible to obtain a rapid change in the clinical picture of the acute process (in particular, we are talking about stopping purulent secretions and reducing the duration of treatment), while there were no side effects and any allergic manifestations.
As noted in another study, the use of amaranth oil can improve immunity and prevent the recurrence of chronic diseases such as sinusitis and other diseases of the upper respiratory tract. In particular, it implies the use of a drop in the nose – morning and evening for 2 to 4 months.
Amaranth oil in the treatment of skin diseases
Numerous studies confirm the effectiveness of amaranth oil in the treatment of diseases of the skin. If we talk about practical application, it should be said that for these purposes it has been used for three years at the City Hospital No. 6 in St. Petersburg.
The treatment was 101 patients:
- 31 were diagnosed with atopic dermatitis;
- 26 have trophic ulcers;
- 24 have psoriasis;
- in 17 – pemphigus;
- 3 – exudative erythema.
After applying amaranth oil, the doctors came to the conclusion that it really is highly effective – it reduces the treatment time, there are no allergic reactions and side effects.
Cancer and antioxidant properties
The results of various clinical studies have proven oncoprotective, proliferative and antioxidant properties of amaranth oil and squalene.
For example, the effectiveness of amaranth oil, both before radiation and after radiation exposure, has been established. Well it helps with immunodeficiency. Its use allows to achieve a slowdown in the aging process of the body.
Similar studies, which revealed oncoprotective, proliferative and antioxidant properties of amaranth oil and squalene, were conducted in the following institutions:
- Vishnevsky Hospital;
- Voronezh Medical Institute;
- Research Institute of Oncology of St. Petersburg;
- Research Institute of ENT organs of St. Petersburg.
It was also revealed that amaranth oil not only acts locally, but also provides an effective complex effect on the entire human body. Since it is a corrector of biochemical metabolic reactions in the body.
Amaranth oil and rationality of its use: the findings of the study
A study conducted by I. M. Kamysheva, S. N. Kulakova, A. G. Yushkevich (Academy of National Security of Russia, All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Fats, Institute of Nutrition, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, OOO Forma Medical Center) shows that amaranth oil is superior to others similar vegetable oils (linseed, sea buckthorn) in terms of quantitative content and total level of concentration of biologically active substances. Including, in amaranth oil squalene is present in large quantities.
All this confirms the rationality of the use of amaranth oil in such diseases and disorders of the body as obesity, atherosclerosis, hypertension, ENT pathology, skin diseases. However, the researchers note that the effect will be achieved only if amaranth oil is taken continuously.