CULTIVATION AND APPLICATION OF AMARANTH IN PRIMARCLE

Автор - | 05.02.2019

We bring to your attention another article devoted to the study of the peculiarities of growing amaranth in Ukraine. Its author is V.V. Saratovsky (Head of the Ecological Laboratory, Drohobych State Pedagogical University named after Ivan Franko), and the article itself was published in the “Scientific Herald” edition, which is published by the Ukrainian State Technical University, in 2004. Despite the fact that many years have passed since the cultivation of amaranth has reached a new level in Ukraine, the material remains relevant and interesting for Ukrainian farmers to this day.

As wrote in the article V.V. Saratovsky, work was carried out on the cultivation of amaranth in the Drohobych region of the Carpathian region. Its results prove the feasibility of growing an amaranth culture to produce high-quality flour with a high content of protein and oil up to 6%, which contains squalene and rutin, tocotriene. In addition, this flour has healing and immune healing properties.

General information
Amaranth in Greek means “unfading”, the Indian name “God-Granted”, the Ukrainian name – schirits.

Amaranth is grown all over the world, recognized by UNESCO as the main food crop of the 21st century. In the US, amaranth is included in 40 food items. Amaranth protein is superior in quality to wheat and soy protein and is not inferior to animal protein.

Amaranth is not only a high-quality fodder crop for fattening cattle, pigs, poultry, birds, but also an indispensable food additive in the form of shoots in a salad.

Amaranth leaves are used to make medicinal teas, and amaranth oil obtained by extracting CO2 has immune and healing properties.

Amaranth use schemes


Amaranth, as a promising culture
The problem today is the use of amaranth seeds to obtain flour with a high content of protein, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and other trace elements, which exceeds their content in wheat and soybeans.

Considering that the Carpathian region is a zone of recovery and treatment, there are rehabilitation centers, sanatoriums and other health centers, there is a need to obtain seeds and its derivatives, and especially after a poor harvest in 2003, which may recur as a result of negative natural factors.

The content of amaranth oil rutin, squalene hydrocarbon, tocopherol in the form of tocotriene contributes to the biosynthesis of cholesterol, tissue regeneration and epithelization, especially with burns, ulcers, radiation and chemical lesions.

In the Carpathian region due attention is paid to the cultivation and application of amaranth by research institutions and universities, which is reflected in the works and in the practical receipt of food and feed additives, oil, enterosorbent, teas, flour.

A number of authors prove the expediency of growing and using amaranth and its derivatives in the western region, where a warm autumn contributes to its full maturation.

So, in the article “Amaranth is a natural treasury of health” academician EM. Panasyuk

notes that according to the international quality scale, amaranth proteins are estimated at 100 points, and the most soybean protein plant is at only 60 points. For nutritional and taste, amaranth has no competitors.

Various studies of amaranth by Ukrainian scientists
E. V. Tarasova, I.M. Boronyak, A.F. Tsimar, using a comparative table of the content of amino acids in amaranth and sea buckthorn (according to Yu.V. Kiselev) and according to own observations, pay attention to biologically active substances belonging to the group of sterols.

Fundamental selection work Z.A. The tsarik for creating a variety of amaranth of crimson Skif, testifies to the potential possibilities of this variety both to vegetativeness of 1000–16000 centners per hectare, and seed productivity – 30–35 centners per hectare (1994).

In his work “Amaranth: methods of cultivation and use” (R.Y. Kravtsov, I.F. Batyuk, V.Ya. Shvaykovsky) speaks about the cultivation of amaranth in the conditions of the Lviv region in educational and experimental farms of the Academy of Veterinary Medicine.

In the Lviv Institute of Agriculture of the Western Region of the Ukrainian Academy of Agrarian Sciences (S. Obroshino) successful selection studies were conducted on a number of amaranth varieties (Z.A. Tsarik, V.I. Velichko, A.V. Pogoretsky), which confirms the feasibility of growing it on the lands of the Carpathians.

Much attention in the experimental studies of amaranth and its products is given to the departments of normal physiology of Lviv State Medical University. Daniil Galitsky and the Department of Biochemistry. In these studies, we study the complex effect of amaranth oil, teas, enterosorbents on the functions of the digestive and urinary systems.

Note. Amaranth oil, enterosorbent and amaranth leaves tea were successfully used in the treatment of gastroenterological and urological patients in the Truskavets central clinical military sanatorium in 1994-96.

Now a completely natural question arises: “How is it better to organize the provision of the population of Western Ukraine with amaranth? Or to organize its cultivation in the eastern and southern regions, where the climate is more favorable and the land is more fertile, or try to develop such cultivation in the Carpathian region? ”

Experiments on the cultivation of amaranth
On the experimental site of the small enterprise “Proba” (the village of Yasenitsa-Solnaya), in May 1995, a plot of two types of amaranth pyramidal with black and white seeds was planted. Amaranth was sown in continuous stripes with a spacing of 50-60 cm into the soil, heated to 10 degrees (May), was fertilized with humus at the rate of 7000 kg / ha and was plowed to a depth of 25-30 cm. Also amaranth was planted with individual bushes with a distance of 18-20 cm between the bushes in a row. The depth of sowing the grain in both cases was 1.0-1.5 cm, the soil before planting was crushed and leveled.

Observations showed that the grain germinated well, however, gaps in the rows were noted.

Unfortunately, at the initial stage of germination, amaranth grows slowly, and therefore can be drowned out by weeds. To avoid this danger, the weeds need to weed out even when they grow to a height of several centimeters.

Simultaneously with the weeding, it is advisable to thin out the thickened rows, and plant weeded amaranth plants, thinned, when thinning.

Unfortunately, such works require accuracy, so they must be carried out manually. The transplanted amaranth grew well in a new place, especially with additional irrigation, which will probably provide an opportunity to propagate it in seedlings.

As for yields, it is better to use rarely planted, and not solid rows when planting “for grain”. From such plants grown from one grain, it was possible to collect from several hundred to several thousand grains.

Such a yield of local agricultural plants is unattainable, therefore, we can safely say that amaranth showed itself to be a high-yielding plant (seeds of 25-30 centners / ha), despite the fact that climatic conditions of the Carpathian region are unusual for him.

Medicinal properties of amaranth leaves
And if you consider that in addition to seeds, each plant, growing to a height of 1.5-1.7 m, and sometimes up to 2.0-2.5 meters, gives a significant amount of valuable leaves, which is used for treatment, nutrition and feeding cattle, the value of amaranth increases even more.

The medicinal properties of such leaves were tested on the basis of the Truskavets sanatorium of the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine, where it was used as a dietary supplement in the form of tea for the treatment of nephritis, pyelonephritis, cystitis and pyelocystitis.

Unfortunately, despite the developed root system, amaranth is poorly able to withstand strong winds, so it is better to sow it mixed with sunflower, corn or Jerusalem artichoke, and on clay, and not on sandy soils.

Features of harvesting amaranth seed harvesting
It is also necessary to keep in mind that black amaranth and crimson amaranth germinate and ripen faster than white, so the joint cultivation of both species allows you to increase the time of harvest.

After pruning the branches with seeds, they must be dried under a canopy (in warm weather for at least a week), and then thresh with improvised means, or with a rapeseed sieve combine.

After threshing, the grain is separated from coarse impurities using sieves with openings of 2-0.7 mm, and from the chaff by means of a fan or wind.

So, summing up the above, we can draw the following conclusions
The climatic conditions of the Carpathian region are suitable for the cultivation of amaranth and its fertility, both for green mass and for seeds.
The yield of amaranth is sufficient for its profitability.
A set of therapeutic and vitamin substances in the seeds and leaves of amaranth is sufficient for the amaranth to be used as a dietary supplement and drug.
To provide patients with drugs from amaranth, as well as to introduce them into widespread use among the population, it is advisable to organize the cultivation of this crop in the Carpathian region, and organize a workshop for the production of oil by the method of carbon dioxide extraction of oil from seeds (freezing).
Summarizing
Despite the fact that the article was published back in 2004, it still remains relevant for Ukrainian farmers who grow amaranth or are just going to do it.

In particular, in the work of V.V. Saratovsky justifies the need to grow amaranth in the Carpathian region! That will give impetus to the development of not only the farm, but also the food industry.

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