The amaranth studies presented earlier on our website are relatively old. They are several years old. But they do not lose their relevance. Today we want to tell you about a relatively new study – this work was written in 2017, which was prepared by I.F. Lanytsa from Lviv University of Trade and Economics. It provides an assessment of the quality of processed products of amaranth. The given data will be interesting, both to existing manufacturers of amaranth products, and to those who are just about to enter this business.
The work was published in 2017 in the Scientific Bulletin Scientific Bulletin of LNUVBT (Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology) named after S.Z. Grzycki.
Why research was conducted
As noted in the introduction to his work, I. F. Lanitsya, a combination of vegetable and animal proteins is actively used in the manufacture of meat products. As it essentially allows to expand the raw materials capabilities of producers, as well as to increase the overall quality of products, their biological and nutritional value.
An analytical evaluation of the biological and nutritional value of both plant and animal raw materials yielded interesting results. For research used such raw materials as:
- pea flour;
- amaranth flour
Studies have allowed to establish the composition of each sample of raw materials and determine how much it includes proteins, fats, carbohydrates, fiber and mineral components.
For an objective determination of the biological value of raw materials, the content of essential amino acids was taken into account.
As the author notes, the result of the research shows that the amaranth flour obtained from the white seed variety K-125 is a typical vegetable raw material in which a large amount of cellulose, carbohydrates are present, and a sufficiently large amount of vegetable protein, and a reduced amount of lipids. .
All this indicates that amaranth flour is ideal for the production of gerodietic meat and sausage products with a high content of ballast substances, dietary products, as well as a substitute for raw meat during production.
Amaranth proteins were characterized by a high content of essential amino acids, and by the amount of sulfur-containing amino acids they exceeded both pea flour and beef meat. Consequently, the products of amaranth processing should be used to increase the biological value of food.
Introduction: the importance of protein for humanity
Today, the problems of fresh water and food protein on planet Earth remain relevant, and the farther they get, the more they become more acute. Already existing protein deficiency under conditions of rapid population growth will constantly increase.
To eliminate the shortage of protein in the world, its production must be increased threefold in the next 20-25 years.
Protein has a special place in human nutrition.
It is necessary to ensure the many processes of the body. Meat is one of the important sources of high-grade protein. It is a high quality food product, has not yet been modeled by any combination of protein-containing products of other origin.
However, meat is also one of the most expensive foods in the human daily diet. According to the observations of physicians and the experience of many generations of the consumption of animal-only proteins, rather quickly leads to metabolic disturbances in the human body and to various diseases.
Therefore, the diet should be balanced by the content of products of different origin. In recent years, research has been developed extensively on the inclusion of vegetable proteins in the diet.
At the same time, their usefulness in terms of the content of essential amino acids, as well as reserves (that is, how many of them are possible and whether it is possible to receive them in the future) and cost, are of fundamental importance.
How research was conducted
Material and research methods
During the research, pea and amaranth flour was used as an alternative to raw meat. Under laboratory conditions, the nutritional and biological value of plant and meat raw materials was analyzed.
The nutritional value of raw materials is determined by the components that make up it. First of all, these are the main classes of biopolymers:
- ash elements.
The protein content was determined by the Kjeldahl method, the fat content by the Soxhlet method, carbohydrates by the anthrone reagent, mineral substances by the ashing method, and the fiber content by the Kurshner and Ganak methods. The moisture content was determined by the method of drying.
Research results and their comments
Comparative composition of meat (beef cutlet meat) and vegetable protein raw materials (pea and amaranth flour) are presented in table. one.
These data suggest that amaranth flour is a typical plant product with high carbohydrate content.
At the same time, a fairly high level of vegetable protein is observed in amaranth flour. Thus, amaranth flour in its content is close to beef meat (the difference between them is only 1.7 percentage points), and inferior to pea flour (by 6.00 percentage points).
The content of lipids in amaranth flour was 10.03 percentage points lower than in beef meat and 4.2 percentage points higher than in pea flour.
According to the mineral content, amaranth flour exceeds beef by 3.24 percentage points, and pea flour – by 1.58 percentage points.
The low level of moisture (less than 15%) in vegetable raw materials allows harvesting and storing a significant amount of it without the threat of spoilage of microflora that develops in wet products.
The high level of carbohydrates and fiber limits to some extent the amount of amaranth flour in the production of split meat semi-finished products. So, in the flour of amaranth carbohydrates in 6.01 percentage points more than in pea flour. If we talk about fiber, then, on the contrary, its flour is less (by 12.36 percentage points). Such a high content of carbohydrates and fiber cannot be considered negative, because at present there is a tendency in the world to manufacture gerodietichnyh food products with a high content of ballast substances (fiber, polysaccharides), which have a positive effect on the metabolic processes in the body.
Since amaranth and pea flour are interesting as substitutes for protein meat raw materials, the next stage of research was to determine the qualitative composition of the proteins that make up them and compare them with the amino acids of beef.
Table 2 shows the results of the study of the amino acid composition of plant and animal raw materials. According to the table. 2, in amaranth, isoleucine was the first limiting amino acid.
Its amino acid speed is 20% less compared to the ideal protein determined by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization.
Moreover, isoleucine in 100 grams of amaranth protein is 1.95 g less than that of beef proteins, and 0.57 g less than that of peas.
The second limiting amino acid of amaranth was threonine, the amino acid rate of which is 15% less in comparison with the ideal protein. And its content in 100 grams of protein is almost equal to the same content of proteins in beef and peas (by 0.35 g and 0.48 g less, respectively).
The third limiting amino acid was valine. (Amino acid fast is 7% less, and its content is 0.25 g less than in beef and 0.28 g more than in peas).
By the content of phenylalanine and tyrosine, amaranth protein exceeded beef protein (by 0.76 g and 0.12 g, respectively) and peas (by 0.14 and 1.31 g, respectively). It was also noted that in the content of sulfur-containing amino acids, in particular methionine, the products of processing of amaranth grain exceeded both beef meat and pea flour.
Since the acid hydrolysis of tryptophan is completely destroyed, its content was determined using spectral-luminescent studies. For the study used 1% extract of amaranth flour.
As a result of the study, it was determined that the spectral position of the photoluminescence band with γ max = 348 nm and the spectral excitation region of this photoluminescence band agree well with the characteristics of the tryptophan amino acid residue, and γ max = 425 nm and its spectral excitation region is pyridoxine acid, which is form of existence of vitamin B6 in biological systems.
On this basis, it is possible to assert that amaranth tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and pyridoxine acid are present in the flour.
Summarizing. What conclusions allowed to obtain research
The study of the nutritional value of pea flour and amaranth showed that they are almost equivalent to raw meat in protein content and can be used in a certain amount as meat substitutes in the production of split meat semi-finished products.
The increased content of carbohydrates and fiber in meat products has a positive effect on the human body. This is due to the fact that polysaccharides have cation-exchange properties and excrete toxic substances from the body.
Prospects for further research: taking into account the research, it becomes possible to develop a formulation and production technology for combined meat splitting semi-finished products with the replacement of a part of raw meat with amaranth flour.