FAR EASTERN AMARANTH

Автор - | 04.03.2019

A number of amaranth varieties in the Far East are highly valued. Farmers in these territories work in difficult conditions with a high risk of yield loss. Despite the fact that the southern regions are located on the latitude of Ukraine and even partially – on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, it is much more difficult to grow grain crops here.

The difficulties of farming in the Far East
By themselves, the southern regions of the Far East from the point of view, in particular, botanists are considered to be a unique territory, which even has no approximate analogues in the world. Particularly, scientists are attracted by the seaside zone. The microclimate prevailing in some areas near the Sea of ​​Japan and the Sea of ​​Okhotsk, not pictures on demand of lemongrass, occur at no other point on the planet. Due to this, in the Far East there is a huge number of plants that are not found anywhere else – endemics. In addition, near the seas, there is a unique mixture of climatic zones. For example, in Primorye, the taiga flora, which is found in the north closer to the polar circle, is adjacent to a subtropical one. There are also plants typical of the continental climate.

Due to the presence of a large number of medicinal plants – both endemic and simply rare (the first can be attributed to lemongrass, to the second, for example, ginseng) – scientists define the Far East as a very rich land. But the cultivation of less typical crops for the region, which includes most of the common cereals in Ukraine, as well as corn and some other fodder, is extremely difficult.

The main difficulties are caused by the monsoon climate characterized by a large amount of precipitation in summer. Pictures on request Typhoon Far East Often there is no sun in the weeks during the summer, despite the holiday season at sea. Cloudy dry weather, as a rule, in such cases does not happen. Either it rains constantly, or there is a dense fog; air humidity with rare exceptions is close to 100%.

The reason for this weather – typhoons coming from the Pacific Ocean. In the regions where they pass, agriculture suffers huge losses. Water that has risen in rivers due to typhoon rains floods vast areas, including fields, and part of the crop is lost due to hurricane winds.

Amaranth in the Far East
In view of the above, the amaranth is one of the cultures quite common in the Far Eastern regions. Harvesting a full amaranth crop is easier than getting a full soybean crop, the same corn or oats. The culture brings more substantial benefits in the Far East in comparison with winter rye, even its stable varieties.

Stern amaranth in the Far Eastern regions
One of the main reasons for this is the adaptability of amaranth. This plant is widespread, as we have repeatedly written, all over the world. Its original homeland was South America, from where it spread across all continents except Antarctica. Everywhere it has adapted to local weather conditions.

Pictures on request amaranth In the process of adaptation, amaranth was repeatedly modified, lost some of its original properties and acquired new ones, but mostly retained the features that were useful both in agriculture and for the human body, even in very climatically sensitive regions.

This happened and is happening to this day in the Far East. Amaranth was brought there, most likely from the direction of Central Asia or southern Siberia, according to the assumptions of researchers, more than a century ago. During this time, the plant inevitably had to either adapt to the local climate, or disappear, unable to cope with excessively moist air. Amaranth has adapted. Confirms its natural resistance and the fact that some fodder, but extremely low-yielding varieties are still found on the plains of the Far East. Wild-growing inedible amaranth, shchiritsu, periodically can be seen on the hills, in the mountainous terrain of Primorye.

Start using amaranth in the Far East
Scientists of the Khabarovsk Territory, the Amur Region and Primorye engaged in amaranth as a crop in about the 90s of the last century. Known attempts to cultivate it in 1994 in the Amur region. The farmers heard about the culture, which at that time was actively spreading across Siberia, and tried to repeat the successful experiments of their Siberian colleagues. But because of the poor knowledge of amaranth, or rather its cultivation in the marshy soils, which the Amur Region is rich with, this did not bring the desired result.

However, biologists did not lose their hopes: in the same year biological research of amaranth began in the Amur Region. The biologist Tatyana Slobodianik engaged in the plant the most closely. As a result, over three years, Pictures at the request of amaranth, several cultural samples were studied, both local and imported from Siberia and China.

Among other things, it was concluded that the amaranth, which was found on the plains, lost somewhat in the process of adaptation in yield, size and, as a result, the amount of useful substances. It was possible to restore the indicators by the method of traditional selection, but expensive. Therefore, biologists have come to the conclusion that it is more expedient to use the varieties already bred from other regions and wait until they adapt in the Far East.

It took several more years to select and study the adaptation indicators of various variety samples resistant to weather conditions of amaranth brought from different regions. During this time, the scientists of Blagoveshchensk and Vladivostok determined in which regions of the Far East it makes sense to grow amaranth and where what variety will yield a crop that pays for growing costs. The results were published in various articles in Blagoveshchensk, and in Khabarovsk, in Vladivostok, and even in Komsomolsk-on-Amur. Due to this, as well as due to the practical confirmation of the findings, the amaranth quickly dispersed throughout the Far East, not counting the northern regions.

The geography of the “Far Eastern amaranth”
The locals call the amaranth varieties now grown in the Far East – Far Eastern amaranth, although officially there is no such variety. In fact, the Far Eastern amaranth is a crimson amaranth, and also its subspecies, originally distributed in the northern regions of China and Korea, is yellow amaranth.

Nowadays, amaranth varieties used in the Far East. Images on request of Polagrant amaranth are grown as a fodder crop in many Russian and not only regions with not very favorable weather conditions. In Ukraine and in regions with a moderately continental climate, their cultivation is unprofitable due to lower yields. However, in the conditions of the Far East, Transbaikalia, central Siberia, as well as for northern Mongolia, they yield a substantial crop, surpassing that of most other common forage crops. At present, only alfalfa and Siberian prairie can indulge in yields with amaranth in these territories. But they contain beneficial substances, in particular proteins and squale-containing fats, several times less than in amaranth.

Amaranth yellow “Far Eastern” also spread beyond the Primorsky Territory, but it can most often be found near the Pacific waters, mainly – the Sea of ​​Japan and the Sea of ​​Okhotsk.

“Kinelsky” and “Kines” – the best Far Eastern varieties
The most common variety of amaranth grown for feeding purposes in the Far East right now is Kinelsky. It represents a variety of crimson amaranth, bred in the Volga region. Refers to amaranth paniculate. Recognized as the best fodder variety of amaranth in the Far East for the following reasons:

The height of the ripened plant reaches 160-165 cm, which in the Amur Region is considered to be a very good indicator among the many varieties of amaranth. As a result, Kinelsky has more Pictures on request Kinel amaranth high yield of green mass compared to other varieties.
It has the largest, dense and juicy leaves among other varieties of amaranth, adapted in the Far East. Due to this, the concentration of nutrients per unit area spent on cultivation is higher.
A panicle of the plant is lush, its length is 50-60 cm, which is also one of the best indicators in the Far East, and not only in the Amur Region, but also in the warm Primorye and in the south of the Khabarovsk Territory. Due to this, grain yield per unit area also benefits compared to other varieties.
General characteristics of the variety “Kinelsky”
The color of the leaves of ripe amaranth varieties “Kinelsky” – light green, panicle – purple-red, grain – yellowish. For the manufacture of feed used green mass and grain in full. The yield of Kinelsky in the Far Eastern regions in favorable years with no typhoons is up to 95 t / ha, the grain yield is 1.5-2.5 t / ha. With heavy rainfall at the end of the growing season, the yield of green mass may fall to 70 t / ha; with strong winds, the grain yield drops to 0.7-1 t / ha.

By nutritional grade has a fairly high performance. As a rule, proteins in grain are not less than 17%, and fats – not less than 8%. In favorable years, the amount of fat can reach 10%, and the amount of squalene in fats – 6-7%.

Use of the Kinelsky variety
Attempts were made to produce food for humans from the Kinelsky grain, but the initiative gradually faded away. This is due to the moderate content of fats and minerals in Kinelsky compared to grain varieties that are grown in China and products from which are delivered to the Far East in large quantities.

“Kinelsky” was selected in the Far East for high moisture and salt tolerance. It is these features of the variety that made it popular on the banks of the Amur, where the humidity is quite high, and in Primorye, more precisely in the regions located directly by the sea. Attempts were made to grow “Kinelsky” in Sakhalin and in the southern regions of the Kamchatka Peninsula, but with few exceptions they were unsuccessful.

The disadvantage of Kinelsky is not very high wind resistance. Often, this is the cause of large crop losses in Primorye, and for the same reason, experiments on its cultivation in Kamchatka and Sakhalin failed. Hurricane winds come before the end of the growing season and lead to the death of more than 40% of the crop.

“Kinelsky” or “Kines”?
An alternative to “Kinelsky” is the variety “Kines” – also the result of the work of Volga breeders. It was withdrawn relatively recently and immediately came to the Far East. “Kines” has a high similarity with “Kinelsky” and was created on its basis, but is more wind-resistant and generally more suitable for complex climatic zones, including monsoon ones.

The disadvantage of the “Kines” is slightly lower yields. As a rule, 75 t / ha are considered to be a very good yield of green mass of “Kines” in the Far East. The grain yield ranges from 0.7-2 t / ha.

At first glance, Kines loses pictures on demand kines amaranth to Kinelsky from the point of view of profit, but in unfavorable years it gives a greater yield than the competitor. Therefore, in preparing for the sowing of feed amaranth, farmers are guided by forecasts for the end of April, May, June and early July – the time when amaranth ripens in various regions of the Far East. Depending on the availability of forecasts, a variety is selected.

Unfortunately, long-term forecasts are not always accurate, the weather in the area of ​​the Pacific is extremely unpredictable, so the cultivation of any crops always has high risks of yield loss.

In view of this, studies are being conducted on the basis of the Far Eastern State Agrarian University, the outcome of which should be the breeding of early and / or precocious amaranth varieties, which will have all the properties of Kinelsky and preserve the stability of Kines. This will make it possible to harvest before the summer monsoons have time to destroy it. At present, some agricultural producers are experimenting independently with early ripening varieties, however, such varieties, as a rule, have low moisture resistance and produce few yields in the Far East.

Decorative amaranth in the Far East
It is possible to find in the Far East not only fodder, but also decorative amaranth. Most of it in Primorye. In the Khabarovsk region, it is rare; in the Amur region is distributed mainly in Blagoveshchensk.

The seeds of ornamental amaranth are delivered to Blagoveshchensk mainly from China, with which the city has a close relationship with Blagoveshchensk almost at the border.

But in Vladivostok, the Botanical Garden-Institute of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the largest botanical garden in the Far East, is actively involved in the cultivation of various varieties of ornamental amaranth. Varieties “Cherry Velvet” and “Autumn Colors” are offered directly next to the territory of the garden. In addition, biologists are engaged in selection, in view of which new varieties constantly appear in the garden – under the “Experiment” sign.

The work of Vladivostok biologists in breeding ornamental amaranth
“Experiments” are different. There are also varieties of paniculate amaranth, only much smaller in comparison with fodder and grain analogues. As a rule, such a decorative amaranth does not exceed 1 m in height, and more often it is much lower. Panicles are also small, neat, moderately puffy and have rather unusual shades. Among them – and rich cherry, and burgundy, and bright scarlet, and fiery orange. You will not see such flowers on agricultural amaranth lands anywhere – neither in the Far East, nor in Ukraine, nor even in warm southern countries, where a variety of amaranth is very large.

Vladivostok biologists are experimenting with other types of decorative amaranth. For example, they work a lot with two-color and tricolor amaranth (since it has the greatest demand). Variations of colors are different: both yellow-red-green, and cherry-red-yellow, and cherry-maroon-green, and yellow-red, and purple-yellow, and many others. “The color of a decorative amaranth can be given almost any kind,” say the botanical garden staff, “even blue, although it will take longer to work on this.” But blue roses have been known for a long time – and blue amaranth can also be grown. ” Another thing is that the demand for blue amaranth is unlikely to be high, so they prefer to experiment with more natural colors.

But the main work of breeders is not to change the color of the leaves of the plant, but again to make it more resistant to the weather conditions of the Far East and more “long-playing”.

Of the varieties of ornamental amaranth existing in the Far East, only a few are able to hold out in all that is called beauty for more than a month and a half. Basically, amaranth in Primorye loses all its beauty in a month, and especially tender, recently bred varieties delight visitors of the botanical garden a maximum of a couple of weeks. Therefore, the main task of biologists is to prolong the life of multi-colored amaranth beauty.

Amaranth tailed – strong and stable
Long-livers are pleased with the local population and guests of Primorye with bright flowers of amaranth tailed. Actually, the color range here is narrower – dark purple, bright purple and burgundy. White-tailed amaranth in this region is rare, although its breeding does not require any significant costs for Pictures on request amaranth decorative comparison with purple plants. But historically, as the owners of estates, restaurants, and biologists are engaged in purple-reddish tailed amaranth.

The tail amaranth from decorative varieties is found, strictly speaking, in the Far East most often. They even buy it in the Khabarovsk Territory (mainly, according to the sellers, in Khabarovsk itself), it is also suitable for the Amur Region. Of all the varieties, amaranth tail has adapted to the Far Eastern peculiarities better than others. Moreover, he calmly experiences heavy rains, being in close proximity to the sea (in the territories of seaside estates almost at the very edge of the coast) and strong winds. The owners joke that after typhoons, amaranth remains the only inhabitant of the luxurious before the typhoon flower beds, although a bit impoverished.

The red-burgundy “Dance of Fire” with moderately long tails and a beautiful combination of burgundy flower and rich green leaves are especially popular.

Decorative Far Eastern amaranth – for every taste
The tail amaranth looks, of course, exotic, but lovers of bright colors prefer other varieties, despite the fact that they are more tender. Therefore, as for paniculate amaranth and varicolored varieties, in the Far East there are:

  • “Brazilian Carnival” with narrow wavy leaves of yellow and / or bright pink color, without a panicle;
  • “Glamor shine” with shiny dark pink leaves, without a whisk;
  • The “magic cascade” in the assortment, which is a small plant with small tails, which sometimes fall, and sometimes stand straight and have a different color – green, yellow, cherry, orange, but mostly not very bright;
  • “Bicolor” with dark green and light burgundy leaves at the same time;
  • “Illumination tricolor” with small leaves that have a bright red color at the stem, then a yellow strip in the middle and a bright green tip;
  • The Bronze Age with red and orange-red small panicles and many others.

Despite the not very long period of “decorative” flowering within its own species, amaranth in the Far East is considered one of the most sustainable ornamental plants. Obviously, this is due to his popularity and attention from the Academy of Sciences. There are cases when a decorative amaranth in Vladivostok was bought in large quantities by Japan. Therefore, work in the direction of the selection of new varieties of this variety of amaranth for the most part pays off and, presumably, will bring considerable benefits if it is possible to develop a more sustainable and long-playing variety.

As a conclusion, it can be said that amaranth and relatively stable cultures similar to it are a find for such climatically difficult regions as the Far East. Amaranth researchers have positive prospects here, undoubtedly, and, most likely, even not only in the field of ornamental and fodder, but in the future in the field of growing grain amaranth.

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