Amaranth is a plant that is distinguished by a variety that is surprising for its family. Among the many crops in the world, he is in the top ten leaders in the number of varieties. According to one of the most comprehensive encyclopedic reference books about the world flora, the Earth’s plant database The Plant AmaranthList, a genus of plants under the collective name Amaranthus (or Amaranthene) combines 184 types of culture.
Not all of them are suitable for food. Moreover, several dozen species of amaranth are poisonous in large doses for mammals. However, not a single kind of amaranth, including its wild version – shchiritsa, will have an instant irreversible negative effect on the body, in other words, a person, if he accidentally eats a little inedible amaranth, will not die. But if he uses it constantly, toxic substances due to high concentration in inedible varieties will not have time to be removed from the body, accumulate there and lead to failure of the liver first, and after it other vital organs. Similar effects such varieties of plants will produce on animals. Amaranth’s opponents cite this argument, ignoring the fact that the species has many edible and useful varieties.
In some varieties of amaranth, the amount of harmful substances is comparable to the amount of beneficial. Such amaranth could be used for the manufacture of feed and food after thorough cleaning of toxins. But, in view of the existence of much less harmful species, such “half-healthy” varieties in the total amount of world processing of amaranth for use as food for humans or animal feed occupy 0.5-0.7%.
Used everywhere on all continents, with the exception of Antarctica, amaranth varieties are divided into several varieties:
Decorative varieties of amaranth can be highly toxic and, accordingly, unsuitable for food, but may contain almost no toxins. They are used in floristics, to decorate green areas and so on. Eating them is not recommended in any case, since their cultivation uses toxic substances.
Vegetables are varieties from which only the green part of the plant is used as food. They do not contain toxic substances, but the value of their grain compared to the value of grain of other varieties is so insignificant that it usually makes no sense to process it. Although in some countries, for example in Kazakhstan and Mongolia, amaranth vegetable varieties are used for feeding livestock (in processed form). But the green part of these varieties of amaranth contains the greatest amount of vitamins, among other varieties, has a dense “fleshy” structure consisting of soft fibers, pleasant for human taste buds and suitable for use both in raw and dried form.
Amaranth feed varieties are used to feed livestock. They are selected according to the following formula: protein content / content of toxic substances. Depending on the coefficient obtained, the variety is recognized as suitable or unsuitable for feeding domestic animals, and also determines the degree of its suitability and, ultimately, its value. Also, the value of forage varieties is affected by the amount of vitamins and minerals contained in different parts of the plant.
Grain varieties are the most expensive and valuable. The grain of these amaranth species is the most nutritious and 70026 low-toxic. It contains the most oil and, therefore, squalene, as well as the phospholipids necessary for humans. In addition, the grain obtained from these varieties has the highest levels of tocopherol and tocotrienol compounds (that is, the most useful varieties of vitamin E, which people often do not receive with food, but which are necessary for the successful functioning of a number of processes in the body).
For the reasons listed above, breeders and genetics focus on grain varieties, and it is on these varieties that the most attention is paid when studying the beneficial properties of amaranth. Recently, due to the proliferation and relative simplicity of growing grain amaranth, farmers also often use these varieties for feeding livestock. Feed manufacturers have followed in their footsteps, as the cost of feed from grain varieties is still more or less low, and the demand for high-quality feed from known varieties has increased.
Varieties of grain amaranth
Not all amaranth grain varieties are equivalent. Over the centuries, the population of different continents used the types of plants that nature presented. With the emergence and development of such scientific fields of activity as agrogenetics and plant breeding, it became possible to improve the properties of the most popular amaranth varieties. But agronomy has to pay attention also to the climatic conditions in which this or that type of amaranth grows, adaptability and other factors.
It is impossible to say now that such a sort of amaranth is better and more productive than others, it is impossible. For different climatic zones and different goals, the “best” varieties of amaranth also differ.
There are three varieties of amaranth in the world, the grain of which has high enough indicators on the content of oil, squalene and other nutrients to be considered not just suitable for food and nutritious, but also having a really high nutritional value. It is from them that amaranth oil, flour, and cereals are made; from these varieties, squalene is mined and used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. These are species of Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus hypochondriacus and Amaranthus caudatus.
Amaranthus cruentus is known here as amaranth crimson. It is also called purple amaranth. In world sources, it is called purple amaranth (name, Amar_cruentes_D01o corresponding to our “purple”), red amaranth (red amaranth), blood amaranth (blood amaranth), mexican grain amaranth (Mexican grain amaranth). The last three names on the territory of the CIS are not used.
Amaranth crimson is an annual plant that can reach 2 m in height. A matured specimen is topped with a lush candle of mauve, orange-red, orange, yellow-orange, yellow-green or not very dark red. Often the higher the plant, the bigger and more magnificent the candle. The leaves and stem of Amaranthus cruentus are predominantly green in color, although there are known “purple” (and in fact – dark red-lilac) varieties of this species. Purple Amaranthus cruentus is usually slightly lower (up to one and a half meters), the candle is not as lush as that of the green counterparts, but the lack of pomp is compensated by the density of the flower.
Interesting! The ancients consumed both purple and green amaranth species Cruentus. For example, it is known for certain that ritual bread was made from purple amaranth grains, which were then dyed red with the help of the remaining flowers. And the ancient women used grated flower as blush.
Amaranth purple was originally grown in North and Central America, and it is this that appears in the legends of the ancient Incas. Nowadays, its varieties are grown, in addition to America, in Europe, in some Asian countries that are in the range of about 30-55 degrees north latitude, as well as in northern and southern parts of Africa. In the northern regions of Europe and Asia, amaranth purple grows poorly (as, indeed, any amaranth) and is grown only in greenhouse conditions. Swedish agronomists tried to master the free cultivation of a number of high-olive varieties of this variety of amaranth, but with varying success: the problem is solved with the help of breeders to this day. But Amaranthus cruentus is a godsend for the people of Africa: these plant varieties take root on the continent best of all and are highly valued due to drought resistance and ease of cultivation, especially in underdeveloped countries.
Amaranthus hypochondriacus is common on the territory of the CIS under the name sad amaranth. Names such as dark amaranth and hypochondria amaranth are also used, but less often.
Amaranth sad – an annual plant with dark red candles. The height directly depends on the range of growing. For example, in Russia this variety of amaranth rarely exceeds 130-140 cm, and in Ukraine, as well as in China, India and Mexico, the height of 150-160 cm is the norm for sad amaranth. The flowers consist of small grains, gathered in dense balls, which , in turn, form a candle. Pomp, unlike amaranth crimson, they do not differ. In some varieties, the candle can reach 30-35 cm, although it often fluctuates around 20-25 cm. The stalks of the amaranth of the sad usually have a pronounced reddish tint, although the concentration of red also varies: some varieties have stems that are dominated by green. The branch amaranth sad is weak. The color of the leaves corresponds to the color of the stem and, accordingly, also varies from green with an admixture of a reddish tinge to red with a faint shade of green. The leaves of Amaranthus hypochondriacus have a pointed shape, and their length reaches 15 cm.
Sad amaranth grows predominantly in warm countries located at 14-44 degrees north latitude, as well as in Latin America. Very common in Mexico and in Spain. In Ukraine, experiments on its cultivation were successfully carried out in the southern regions, in particular, in the Kherson and Odessa regions. The cultivation of amaranth in the northern regions is considered inexpedient, since the costs of its cultivation increase, and the productivity remains the same or decreases. For example, an experiment on the cultivation of sad amaranth was conducted in Belarus, in the Gomel region, but it was recognized as unsuccessful. Now the country prefers amaranth crimson, perfectly rooted there.
Amaranthus caudatus is known in the post-Soviet countries as a tailed amaranth. We rarely grow it for commercial use, but are mainly used for decorative purposes. But in 1 Latin American countries, Australia, New Zealand, Indonesia, the Philippines and Sri Lanka, Amaranthus caudatus is one of the most popular grains and oilseeds. Amaranth oil produced in these countries is extracted mainly from these varieties of amaranth, and the content of squalene in it is even higher than in oil produced from amaranth of purple, our local leader in the number of squalene.
The amaranth caudate in these countries is also called pendant amaranth (hanging amaranth), tassel flower (“flower-tassel” literally), velvet flower (velvet flower), foxtail amaranth (“fox tail”), etc. The height of matured amaranth of this variety ranges from 1 to 2.5 m depending on the variety and partially from the growing area. For example, in Australia, Amaranthus caudatus plants are generally lower than in Peru or Colombia. A significant part of the plant is a flower – a long “tail” of purple, dark red or green.
Interesting! There are light pink and white varieties of amaranth caudate, but they are bred for decorative purposes and are grown in regions where tail amaranth is successfully implemented in the field of floristics. Often, these are Western European countries located to the south of 50 degrees north latitude. In countries where oil and other foodstuffs are produced from “tailed” varieties, ornamental varieties are practically not grown, with rare exceptions.
Tails of ornamental varieties can easily reach 100 cm in length, and varieties used in the food industry have slightly smaller tails – 50-70 cm. Dark-red flowers are usually quite narrow and taper to the end. Purple and green, on the contrary, are lush and have almost the same diameter throughout the “tail”.
Amaranth caudate is drought tolerant and loves the sun, so the hot steppe zones grow well. However, in a humid climate, it also feels great, so it is found in the tropics, where it usually grows very widely. In Ukraine, it is first grown in greenhouses, and when resistant warm weather sets in, it is planted in an open space, where it successfully blooms until the first frost. Despite this, Amaranthus caudatus is grown poorly in Ukraine and most often in the framework of research experiments.
Amaranth, high oil grains of purple
Amaranth crimson – the main grain variety amaranth, conquered most of the northern hemisphere. This is logical: for other types of grain amaranth with a high fat content, the climate in Europe, North America and North Asia is rather severe. However, purple amaranth is also a southern plant and too temperate for temperate climates. Thus, grain varieties, which were eaten in antiquity, were preserved in their original form only in areas with similar climatic conditions. 535 For example, in Spain, Greece, a little in Turkey, partly in China. Most of the “ancient” grain varieties have been reborn as wild amaranth, now shchiritsu, and at the moment almost all of them are recognized as highly toxic and unsuitable for food. Where did edible grain varieties come from in Russia, Ukraine, in the north of France and Germany?
Most of the amaranth varieties cultivated in the northern hemisphere are due to research institutes and laboratories in Europe and America. In almost every region of Europe and the USA, over the past half-century, “their” amaranth varieties were bred, which took root well in the climatic conditions of this country. In the CIS, work in this direction has been actively conducted since the beginning of the 90s (read more about research and development of new amaranth varieties in Ukraine here). For the basis almost everywhere are taken varieties of crimson amaranth as the most productive and sustainable of the existing ones. That is how the northern hemisphere received several new varieties of amaranth with a high content of fat and squalene.
The value of amaranth grain varieties is determined by several criteria:
- the amount of oil that can be obtained from the grain;
- the percentage of squalene in the resulting oil;
- the amount of protein and minerals in the grain;
- the suitability of leaves and flowers for eating;
- resistance to adverse weather conditions and resistance to shattering.
There is no variety that has the highest scores for all criteria at the same time. Therefore, when choosing amaranth, it is important to determine which indicator is most important, and proceed from this. For example, in warm regions, preference is often given to grain varieties that benefit in terms of oil, squalene, protein, and other substances. Caring for them is more complicated, but it pays off. And in regions with adverse weather conditions, farmers choose more sustainable species of amaranth. The value of such a grain is lower, but these plants produce a higher yield than many grain crops (not just amaranth), so their cultivation somehow turns out to be more beneficial.
At the moment there are several recognized varieties of amaranth variety Amaranthus cruentus, which are grown in the northern hemisphere for squalene, butter and other food products.
(“Helios”, “Red Amaranth”)
The early ripe grade belonging to hybrid, deduced on the basis of Amaranthus cruentus. It is successfully grown in Minnesota, South Dakota, in Wisconsin, in the north of Germany, as well as in Ukraine and in some regions of Russia (for example, in the Voronezh region). Candle – dark orange medium size; stems – green; the leaves are green; large plants grown closer to the south have dark orange Helios 3; the grain is white. In height freely reaches 165 cm, in the southern regions – 175 cm.
Used to produce amaranth oil by cold pressing. The amount of fat in the grain is up to 10% – this is one of the highest rates. The amount of squalene in oil, obtained by cold pressing, reaches 7.5-8%. The amount of squalene in the oil obtained by extraction can reach up to 9%. The content of protein in the grain is slightly lower than its counterparts – about 19%. The leaves can be used for feeding cattle and pigs, mainly in the form of silage. The grain yield is average, up to 30 kg / ha in good conditions, more often the yield is 20-23 kg / ha. Resistance to adverse weather conditions and shattering is high.
The variety “Helios” is suitable for cultivation in areas with a relatively harsh climate. Yields will be lower than in warm, sunny regions, but with proper care, they significantly exceed the yields of other crops that have similar uses.
(“Golden Giant”, “Red Giant”, sometimes – “Red Amaranth”)
(Sometimes it is confused with the “Giant”, since this name is used on the territory of other countries, but in the CIS “Giant” is a feed variety.)
A relatively late variety: if the early growing season is about 80 days (and the Ukrainian variety Ultra, for example, ripens in some places in 60-70 days), then the Orange Giant needs 110-120 days to ripen. The amaranth candle in this variety is lush, bright orange, about 30-35 cm; stems – green; leaves are green with yellowish streaks; grain – light, with a slight yellowish tinge, 144705740365047355 a little flattened. The plant reaches a height of 2-2.5 m.
It is used for the extraction of oil by extraction, it is also suitable for the production of oil by cold pressing, since the percentage of fat in the grain is quite high – almost 8%, which is why the oil of this sort is usually a bit cheaper. But the squalene in oil of this variety is slightly less – 6.5-7%. From the “Orange Giant” make cereals, flour, bakery products, but less often – pasta. Oil, grain and products from these products have a nutty flavor (in oil it is quite bright, weaker in the grain).
The green mass is used for feeding domestic animals, as a rule, fresh, although grass meal and grass pellets from amaranth of this variety are also produced. Vitamin indicators are quite high, and the leaves have juiciness and elasticity, so that pets quickly eat them.
The yield of green mass is quite good, but the grain yield is relatively low – up to 30 kg / ha, which, obviously, is the reason for the low popularity of the variety. Resistance to adverse conditions and shattering also has high rates. The plant is successfully grown on the territory of the Voronezh region, Poland, Ukraine and in regions with similar weather conditions.
(“Mexican amaranth”, “Mexican cereal amaranth”)
One of the most common varieties of amaranth in the northern hemisphere. It is taking root both in warm regions and in areas with relatively adverse weather conditions. It is grown in the north of Italy, in Greece, in Spain, partially – in the USA, and also in Ukraine, in Russia and in Kazakhstan. Vegetation Aztec period strongly depends on climatic conditions and ranges from 80 to 120 days. The height of the plants is small, usually not exceeding 150 cm, although in the southern regions it can reach 170 cm. The candle is dark red, of medium opacity; the stems are dark red, there may be slight green streaks; leaves are green-red; the grain is dark, brownish.
Despite the prevalence, Aztec has, though high, not the highest oil content: up to 9% fat in the grain, usually around 8.5%. Squalene in fats of grain of this grade of 7%. However, “Aztek” can also be called universal: it is made from butter and cereals (almost all very dark amaranth cereals are “Aztec”), and bread, and other food products. It is also grown for feeding purposes, since the grain of this variety amaranth contains up to 20% protein (according to protein indicators it is one of the best varieties), and due to its juiciness, the leaves are well eaten raw by animals.
“Aztek” is characterized by good resistance to adverse weather conditions, high survival rate, practically does not mutate, due to which it has been preserved so well since ancient times, resistant to shattering. The grain yield is average and is usually up to 30 kg / ha, although this figure also varies depending on the region.
Universal grade. Due to the fact that both the grain and the leaves are used equally widely, including due to its medicinal properties, it is also known under the name “Kharkiv-1 Medical”. Candle – green-yellow, reaches 30 cm; stems and leaves – light green, bright; the grain is bright and with a pronounced golden hue. It reaches a height of 250 cm, in areas with adverse climatic conditions or in the absence of proper maintenance, stops at 200 cm.
One of the most high-olive varieties. Amaranth oil, made in Ukraine and sold in pharmacies (i.e. cold pressed oil), is produced mainly from Kharkivsky-1. Recently, the grade is used to obtain oil by drawing. The amount of squalene in cold pressed oil is 8%; the amount of squalene in oil produced by extraction and sold as a squale-containing therapeutic drug can reach 10%. It has the highest levels of protein content, and the leaves of Kharkivsky-1 are distinguished by their juiciness and high content of vitamins. According to these criteria, the variety is valued in the food industry, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in farmers, and in mixed feed manufacturers. From the amaranth variety “Kharkiv-1” produce cereals, tea, spices, as well as herbal flour and grass granules.
Kharkiv-1 also has one of the highest yields. According to the experience of the farmers of the Voronezh region, it reaches 50 c / ha. Relatively resistant to adverse weather conditions, the percentage of shedding is small. It is recommended to land in greenhouses with subsequent transplanting into open space. Actively grown in Ukraine, Russia, was introduced to the countries of Western Europe, where it best settled down in the Czech Republic and Poland.
One of the earliest varieties of amaranth in Europe. Over-the-top is considered in the southern regions, including in the south of Ukraine. Candle – yellowish, about 20-25 cm; the stems and leaves are green, the leaves may have a yellow tint; the grain is white. Reaches 200 cm in height.
High oil variety, used primarily for oil extraction by extraction. The content of squalene in ultramarant oil, obtained from this variety, ranges from 7-8%. Amaranth grain “Ultra” is widely used in the food industry: it is used for making cereals, flour, pasta, etc. Flour is soft, high flowability, whiteness. Amaranth bread and pastries, as a rule, are also baked from flour made from Ultra grain.
It is rarely used as animal feed, since the protein content in this variety is relatively low compared to others – 17-17.5%. However, due to its early maturation, this variety is sometimes used in starter feeds for birds and piglets. Green mass is rarely used.
In terms of yield, Ultra is comparable to Kharkov-1, but only in warm regions: in the south of Ukraine, the amount of grain produced is also about 50 c / ha. It is resistant to shattering and adverse weather conditions, but does not adapt very well in areas where there is little sun in the spring. Successfully grown in Ukraine, in the warm regions of Russia, was introduced to Poland. Data on further distribution are not available, despite good survival.
One of the most weather resistant varieties of amaranth. The vegetation period is 80-100 days. It has rather high grain yield indicators – up to 35 kg / ha due to a large candle, which reaches 60-70 cm with a total height of 100-120 cm. The candle is green, tall, erect, not lush; the stems and leaves are green; grain – light.
The fat content in the grain of this variety is slightly above average – about 7%. But for the northern regions this is one of the best indicators of the oil content of amaranth grown in open space. Squalene in Voronezh amaranth oil – 5-6%. In addition to butter, amaranth varieties “Voronezh” make cereals, flour and pasta. Squirrel in grain is quite a lot – about 19%, which makes Voronezhsky grain valuable for livestock breeders and producers of pet food and poultry. However, it is practically not used as a fodder variety because of the small amount of green mass: it is impractical to grow it for the production of grass meal and pellets.
“Voronezh” is relatively resistant to shattering and very resistant to adverse weather conditions, including the long absence of the sun, which is rare for amaranth. Therefore, it is successfully grown even in those areas where the survival rate of grain crops is very low.
Also, the Kizlyarets variety is also relatively productive among amaranth purple in terms of the fat content of grains and squalene in fats. The amount of fat in it reaches 6.5%, the amount of squalene in oil is 6%. It is rarely used for the production of oil, but the grain can be used for medicinal purposes.
Amaranth sad and amaranth tail
If practically all over the northern hemisphere (up to 55 degrees of latitude) the food industry, pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies are interested in purple amaranth, in the southern hemisphere along with it there are several varieties of taiga and amaranth sad.
“Amaranth Love Lies Bleeding”
(“Purple Amaranth”, “Fairy Tale Amaranth”)
One of the most famous varieties of amaranth caudate. The name of the variety is often mistakenly perceived as to amaranth as a whole.
The height of the green part usually ranges from 90-110 cm, the tail length is about 80 cm, and, thus, the total length of the plant approaches 2 m. The tail is a peculiar bunch of brushes, has a rich purple tint; leaves and stems are bright green; grain – light, with a diameter of 5 mm.
The amount of fat in the amaranth grain of this variety is 9-10%, the amount of squalene in cold pressed oil is 8%. In southern countries, the technology of obtaining squalene from amaranth is better developed, so the variety is mainly used for the extraction of this substance and its subsequent sale as a medicinal AMACAU_means or bioadditives. Also from “Love Lies Bleeding” in different countries make butter, flour, cereals. To obtain oil, this variety is grown in India, Thailand. In the countries of South America, the manufacture of amaranth flour and bakery products made from purple amaranth grain is put on stream, although the plant is also used to produce oil. Everywhere this variety of amaranth is grown in Africa – in Nigeria, Namibia, Mozambique and other countries. Widely distributed in Australia and partly in New Zealand.
In other countries, “Love Lies Bleeding” can be found as an ornamental plant. And in the southern regions of China, the green mass of this species of amaranth is used to feed livestock.
The plant is thermophilic, drought-resistant, but grows well in the tropics. The vegetation period is 80-90 days.
“Amaranth Green Tails”
Grain variety amaranth caudate, common in Argentina, Brazil and other Latin American countries. It is found in Australia and New Zealand. The stem part of the plant reaches a height of 80-100 cm, the tail is 60-80 cm. The whole plant has a green color when mature, with stems and leaves brighter, and 2 tails are pale green. The grain is white.
The amount of fat in the grain of this variety is 9-9.5%, the amount of squalene in oil is 5-6%. At the same time, the grain is practically not used for making butter; local producers prefer purple amaranth, which grows well in the same geographical areas. Amaranth Green Tails is grown by farmers and is also widely distributed among the poor. Grain is used to make flour and bakery products.
In some European countries it is used as an ornamental plant. The vegetation period is 90-100 days in regions close to the equator and 110-120 in Europe.
“Amaranth Green Thumbs”
The least common variety of relatively high oil species of amaranth. Formally refers to the Amaranthus caudatus, in fact is a hybrid. The height of the stem is 100-120 cm, the tail in shape 3 more resembles a candle, but it hangs down, and its size varies between 15-25 cm. The whole plant is saturated green, the tail may be slightly lighter than the leaves and stems, but bright enough. The grain is white.
The yield of this variety is very low – up to 15 kg / ha, however, the grain contains about 8% fat, which makes the variety quite valuable in terms of nutritional value. Squalene content has not been precisely determined, but oil obtained from this variety is rarely found, and manufacturers declare 5% of squalene in their product. “Amaranth Green Thumbs” as a food crop is grown in some African countries, on farms in Latin America. It also grows in Australia, Indonesia, and the Philippines, but is not used in food production there. It is found in the southern part of the northern hemisphere.
Amaranth Princess Feather Pygmy Torch
Grain and decorative variety amaranth sad. Initially grew up in Mexico, then spread throughout the world. As a grain, it is actively grown in equatorial zones: in Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Zambia, and Ethiopia. It is found in Australia, where it is used to produce oil. As a decorative 4 grade grown in southern Europe, in northern Africa, in Australia.
The height of the plant varies between 170-200 cm. The green part is small, less than 1 m, the stems and leaves have a reddish tint, but the main color is green. Candle – maroon, almost black, erect, dense, reaches 30 cm in height. The grain is light brown, about 5 mm in diameter. Ripens in 80-90 days.
The variety is valued for its high grain yield for the equatorial zones – about 35 c / ha. This, obviously, explains its low popularity in the southern northern hemisphere, where crimson amaranth often produces greater yield. The fat content in the grain of amaranth “Princess Feather Pygmy Torch” is 8%, the content of squalene in oil is 6-7%. For the production of squalene, it is practically not used, for the production of oil – rarely, grain is mainly used to produce flour, cereals, flakes and similar food products.
Speaking of high-oil varieties of amaranth, it is worth mentioning also Amaranthus caudatus mantegazzianus (more than 7% of fat) and another species of amaranth of the caudate, bred in the USA and grown in Ecuador. The latter contains 9-10% fat and is currently experimental.
Selection of high oil amaranth
The average fat content in amaranth grain is 4-5%. Grain with 6% of fat is considered to be of better quality, and varieties in the seeds of which more than 7% of fat are recorded are considered high-fat. 9-10% of fat is a rare indicator, and often such amaranth is used exclusively for the production of oil and for producing squalene.
It is curious that 9-10% is a very low indicator of fat content for oilseeds in principle. So, oil flax contains about 34% fat. In particular, the low fat content in grains accounts for the high cost of amaranth oil.
Often the more oil can be obtained from the grain, the higher the percentage of squalene in the oil. But this pattern does not always work, so you should not rely on it when meeting new varieties.
It does not make sense to choose the most highly oil-bearing crops for the production of flour, cereals, as well as animal feed, etc. The cost of such products from amaranth with 9-10% fat is much higher, and the differences when compared with products made from amaranth with 7-8% fat, very insignificant (in terms of nutritional value).
And when buying amaranth oil, consumers should remember that cold-pressed oil with 8% squalene is much more useful than oil, in which 9-10% squalene and more are stated. In the second, squalene is added during the extraction process, and the extraction process itself involves the use of toxic substances for humans. Despite the fact that the oil then undergoes purification, a small proportion of these substances still remain. Moreover, unfortunately, it is impossible to state with accuracy in the CIS that the oil has passed all the necessary purification steps, and not just the first one.
It also makes sense to check with the manufacturer what kind of amaranth was used in the production of oil.
Choose amaranth thoughtfully – and be healthy!