We present to your attention the next research amaranth conducted in Ukraine. The material was published in 2011 in the Collection of scientific works of VNAU (Vinnitsa National Agrarian University).
The author of the material is A.M. Maksimov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Feed and Agriculture of Podolia, National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine.amarant
The name of the work: “The effectiveness of the creation of high-yielding varieties of amaranth, as a raw material for the production of national fuels and lubricants, as well as a wide range of food, pharmaceutical and feed products.”
In his material, the author describes in detail the results of breeding work aimed at creating high-yielding amaranth varieties as raw materials for the production of national fuels and lubricants, as well as a wide range of food, pharmaceutical and feed products.
What does the author say about amaranth
Amaranth is a valuable fodder, grain, vegetable and medicinal crop, which can be successfully grown in the main soil-climatic zones of Ukraine. By energy efficiency, the production of protein amaranth is the leader among all known plants. It has the lowest transpiration coefficient among crops, is relatively salt-resistant and does not require the use of herbicides for its successful development. In addition, amaranth has C4 type of photosynthesis, which contributes to the high productivity of plants.
According to the research of the National Botanical Garden. N.N. Grishko amaranth is also referred to the most promising introductions for use in phytoenergetic. This was facilitated by the developed technology of phytomass processing for:
- solid fuel.
In particular, Russia has developed a technology for the production of ethanol from dry biomass of plant materials, the cost of which is 20% lower than the cheapest Brazilian ethanol and 40% lower than gasoline.
In this regard, the corresponding requirements are imposed on the phytomass producing varieties, namely, high energy parameters. Therefore, the development of theoretical bases and methods of breeding to increase the yield and quality of vegetative mass of amaranth as a raw material for the production of biofuels, as well as a wide range of food and pharmaceutical products, is appropriate and relevant.
What methodology was used for research?
Studies were conducted during 2008-2010. on the experimental base of the Institute of feed in the experimental farm “Bokhonitskoe” in the fields of the first selective crop rotation on gray podzolized soils, which are characterized by the following indicators:
- the pH of the salt extract is 5.5-6.2;
- hydrolytic acidity – 2.1-2.4 mEq. per 100 soil;
- the content of lightly hydrolyzed nitrogen is less than 10 mg per 100 g of soil;
- mobile forms of phosphorus-10-14 mg and exchange potassium 15-20 mg per 100 g of soil;
- the amount absorbed by the basics is 12–13 mg-eq. per 100 g of soil.
Analyzed a collection of 277 varieties of amaranth obtained from the All-Russian
Institute of Plant Industry, and other institutions. The sowing method is wide-row, the plot area is 24 square meters. Repetition – three times. Accounting and care for the growth and development of plants was carried out according to the method of state variety testing and the method of phenological observations in geobotanical studies.
What results were obtained
For the period 2008-2010. A study was conducted on the collection and selection material of amaranth in the amount of 277 variety samples, 22 of them in the collection nursery, allocated in previous years for the harvest of the vegetative mass and its quality indicators.
According to the results of the study of data from collection samples of domestic and foreign selection, the highest productivity of the vegetative mass (615–917.5 q / ha) had late-ripening variety samples with the length of the vegetation period until full maturity of the seeds was 120 or more days (Tall, Elbrus, Shuntuk K-36 – Argentina, VK1300, K-24, K-8/2 from India; K-78/2 – Cameroon).
In order to obtain a new source material with increased vegetative mass in previous years, a polycross breeding ground was formed with K-36 (Argentina), Elbrus and Shuntuk (Russia).
By the method of family-group selection from polycrosic progeny, the selected breeding material in the study was 250 breeding numbers. 42 numbers were allocated for the complex of economically valuable traits. According to the results of the study, 42 breeding numbers in the competitive nursery were allocated 12 with a yield of green mass of 800-945 q / ha, which is 23-30.6% more than the standard variety Pink Early.
As a result of competitive varietal testing in 2008, selection number 102/06 was allocated, the average yield of its vegetative mass over the years of research was 945 centners / ha, or dry matter – 236.2 centners / ha, which is 30.6% more than the standard.
Under the name Palmyra, the variety was submitted for state testing in 2008 (application No. 08099002 dated December 30, 2008). Variety – late ripening (125-130 days), tall (2.0-2.4 m.), With high larch (50-55%), resistant to stem and root lodging.
Indicators of chemical composition in terms of absolute – dry matter were as follows:
- protein – 17.5%;
- fat – 1.60%;
- fiber – 21.6%;
- ash – 21.1%,
- BEV (nitrogen-free extractives) – 32.2%;
- sugar – 2.4%.
Along with the possible use of the vegetative mass of plants of the variety as bio-raw materials, it is promising to use it for harvesting high-quality silage mixed with corn.
According to the results of the study of 27 collection samples of domestic and foreign selection, the highest productivity of the vegetative mass (615–917.5 q / ha) had late-ripening variety samples with a growing period of up to full maturation of seeds for 120 or more days (Tall, Elbrus, Shuntuk K-36- Argentina, BK1300, K-24, K-8/2 from India).
According to the results of competitive varietal testing (2008-2010), 12 breeding numbers with a yield of green mass of 800–945 centners per hectare were allocated, which is 23–30.6% more than the standard variety Pink Early.
According to the results of competitive testing, a selection number of amaranth was allocated and under the name Palmyra the variety was submitted for state testing (application No. 08099002 of December 30, 2008).
Received OGRN (main state registration number) plant variety Palmyra (№101162).